You are on page 1of 82

Ch 2.

Elements, Compounds and


Chemical Reactions

Brady & Senese,


5th Ed.

Index
2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic the
ory
2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles
2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts
2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids
2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their rea
ctions
2.6. Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called mo
lecules
2.7. Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles calle
d ions
2.8. The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted
2.9. Molecular and ionic compounds are named following a s
ystem

Chemical Laws
The law of conservation of mass - in a chemical
reaction, the mass of the reactants (starting
materials) will equal the mass of resulting
products
Implication: reactions involve the re-organization of
materials.

The law of definite proportions- the ratio of


masses of each element is fixed for a given
compound
Implication: Each atom has a fixed specific mass, thus
in unique combinations, the mass ratio is specific
2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Learning Check:
Magnesium burns in oxygen to form magnesium
oxide. If 16.88 g of Mg are consumed and 28.00 g
of MgO are produced, what mass of oxygen was
consumed?

Mass MgO Mass Mg Mass O


28.00g 16.88g Mass O
(28.00 - 16.88)g Mass O
11.12 g Mass O
2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Daltons Atomic Theory

Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms


Atoms are indestructible. In chemical reactions, the
atoms rearrange but they do not themselves break
apart

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Daltons Atomic Theory (Cont.):

In any sample of a pure element, all the atoms


are identical in mass and other properties.
The atoms of different elements differ in mass
and other properties.
In a given compound the constituent atoms are
always present in the same fixed numerical
ratio.

NaCl has a 1:1 atom ratio on the atomic


level and larger
2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Learning Check:
In a sample of MgO, there are 16.89 g Mg and 11.11
g O. What mass of O would there be in a sample
that contains 2.00 g of Mg?
Mass Mg
fixed ratio for a compound
Mass O
16.89 g Mg 2.00 g Mg

11.11 g O
xgO
16.89g x g 11.11 g 2.00 g
x 1.32 g O

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Your Turn!
In a sample of an unknown compound, the mass
ratio of Cl to C is 47.227g Cl to 4.00 g C. In
another sample, there are 0.553 g of Cl. What
mass of C would be in this sample?
A.
0.1532 g
B.
6.52 g
C.
0.153 g
D.
0.0468 g
E.
None of these
2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

The Law Of Multiple Proportions


When two elements form more than one compound,
the different masses of one element that combine
with the same mass of the other element are in the
ratio of small whole numbers.
cements the idea that atoms react as complete
(whole) particles.
chemical formulas indicate whole numbers of
atoms- not fractions

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

Using The Law Of Multiple Proportions


sulfur
sulfur
dioxide
trioxide
Mass S
32.06 g
32.06 g
Mass O
32.00 g
48.00 g
Use these data to prove the law of
multiple proportions

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

10

Your Turn!
Two substances are formed from A and B. AB and
A2B3. If the mass ratio of A/B in AB is 3.49, what
is the ratio of A/B in A2B3?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

0.431
3.49
0.286
2.33
not enough information given

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

11

Proof Of Atoms
Since the early 1980s, the Scanning Tunneling
Microscope (STM) has been used
A surface can be scanned for topographical
information
The image for all matter shows spherical regions of
matter-- atoms

2.1. Elements and atoms are described by Daltons atomic theory

12

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


A gas filled glass tube that has electrical charge
applied at both ends.
Such a tube glows with light and is the precursor of
the modern-day television screen.

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

15

Discovery Of The Electron By JJ Thomson


In 1897, Thomson placed a
magnet near CRT and noted
deflection of the beam
Repeated experiment with an
electrical field and noted that
the discharge was deflected by
an electrical field toward the
(+) plate
Announced discovery of (-)
particle, later named electron
by Stoney
2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

16

Determining The Charge On An e-: Millikan

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

17

Rutherfords Alpha Scattering Experiment

Most alpha rays passed right through the Au


A few were deflected off at an angle
1 in 8000 bounced back towards the alpha ray source
2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

18

Rutherfords Nuclear Model of the Atom


Since most of the alpha particles were not
deflected, most of the atom is empty space.
Since some of the particles were deflected,
they encountered small particles of the
same charge.
Since some particles were reflected, there
must be a small dense area.

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

19

Discovery Of The Proton


Discovered in 1918 in Ernest Rutherfords lab
Detected using a Mass Spectrometer

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

20

Discovery Of The Neutron


Chadwick determined that the nuclei of light
atoms could be caused to disintegrate by being
bombarded by alpha particles.
In collision of alpha particles with Be, a free
neutron was created
the presence of the neutron confirmed in 1932

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

21

Subatomic Particles
Particle

Symbol

electron

proton

neutron

0
1

1
1

e or e

p or 11H

1
0

n or n

Mass (u)

Location

Charge

5.48579903(10-4)

orbital

1-

1.007276470

nucleus

1+

1.008664904

nucleus

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

22

Atomic Mass
Daltons atomic theory states that atoms of an
element have a constant, characteristic atomic mass
or atomic weight measured in amu (u)
Atomic masses are based on a standard mass, that of
an atom of C
1 atom of Carbon-12 = 12 u
Thus 1 u = 1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

23

Isotopes
Most elements in nature are uniform mixtures of two
or more kinds of atoms with slightly different masses
Atoms of the same element with different masses are
called isotopes
For example: there are 3 isotopes of hydrogen and 4
isotopes of iron

Chemically, isotopes have virtually identical


properties

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

24

Atomic Notation

A
Z

Sy

An element is a substance whose atoms all contain


the identical number of protons, called the atomic
number (Z)
Isotopes are distinguished by mass number (A):
Atomic number, Z = number of protons
Mass number, A = (number of protons) + (number of
neutrons)
Note that for atoms, A is greater than Z: the symbol is topheavy

For charge neutrality, the number of electrons and


protons must be equal
2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

25

Example: uranium-235
Mass number, A (protons + neutrons) 235
Chemical Symbol

U
Atomic number, Z (number of protons) 92
This information can be summarized:
Number of protons = 92 ( = number of electrons)
Number of neutrons = 143
Atomic number (Z) = 92
Mass number (A) = 92 + 143 = 235
Chemical symbol = U

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

26

Learning Check:
Fill in the blanks:
symbol
neutrons
60Co
Br

81

65
29

Cu

33
46

36

protons

27
35
29

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

electrons

27
35
29

27

Your Turn!
How many neutrons are there in 52Fe?
A. 52
B. 55
C. 26
D. none of these

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

28

Learning Check: Atomic Mass


Naturally occurring chlorine is a mixture of two
isotopes. In every sample of this element, 75.77% of
the atoms are chlorine-35 and 24.23% are chlorine37. The measured mass of chlorine-35 is 34.9689 u
and that of chlorine-37 is 36.9659 u. Calculate the
average atomic mass of chlorine.
(75.7734.9689) + (24.2336.9659) u
100
35.45 u

2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

29

Your Turn
There are 2 isotopes of element Z. The first is
56.5% in abundance and has a mass of 152.3 u. If
the atomic mass is 155.5 u, what is the mass of
the other isotope?
A. 156 u
B. 44.5 u
C. 157. u
D. not enough information given
E. none of these 153.7 u
2.2 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles

30

Periodic Table
1A

2A

1
H

arranged in numbered rows


periods
columns called groups or
families

Li

Be

11

12

Na

Mg

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

8B

8B

8B

1B

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

55

56

57

72

73

74

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

87

88

89

104

Fr

Ra

Ac

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

8A
2
He

10

Ne

13

14

15

16

17

18

2B

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

114

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Uuu

Uub

Uuq

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts

31

Periodic Table
Summarizes chemical and physical properties of the
elements
Mendeleev first arranged atoms by increasing atomic
mass. Noted repeating (periodic) properties
Modern table is arranged by increasing atomic
number (Moseley)

2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts

32

Some Important Classifications:


A groups = representative elements or main group
elements
I A = alkali metals
VII A = halogens

II A = alkaline earth metals


VIII = noble (also inert) gases

B groups = transition elements


Inner transition elements = elements 58 71 and 90
103
58 71 = lanthanide elements
90 103 = actinide elements

2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts

33

The modern periodic table

2.3. The periodic table is used to organize and correlate facts

34

Metals, Nonmetals, And Metalloids

2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids

35

Your turn!
Which of the following is correct?
A. Cu is a representative transition element
B. Na is an alkaline earth metal
C. Al is a semimetal in group IIIa
D. F is a representative halogen
E. None of these are correct

2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids

36

Properties Of Metals
reflect light (have metallic luster)
Can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets (are
malleable) and can be drawn into wire (are ductile)
Are solids at room temperature (except Hg)
conduct electricity and heat

2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids

37

Nonmetals And Metalloids


Nonmetals

Lack the properties of metals


Tend to pulverize when struck with a hammer
Non-conductors of electricity and heat
Many are gases, a few solids, and one liquid (Br)
React with metals to form (ionic) compounds

Metalloids
Have properties between metals and nonmetals

2.4. Elements can be metals, non-metals, or metalloids

38

Chemical Formulas
Are symbols used to describe other elements in a
compound
elements and compounds
Free elements are not combined with another
element in a compound. Examples: Fe (iron), Na
(sodium), and K (potassium)
Many non-metals occur in groups of 2 (as diatomic
molecules)- H, O, N, F, Cl, I, Br
Some elements occur as molecules: P4, S, S8, P10, O3 , etc

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

39

Chemical Formulas (Cont.)


Specify the composition of a substance
Fe2O3 is composed of the elements iron and oxygen
in a 2:3 ratio
CO(NH2)2 expands to CON2H4, but parentheses
often group atoms to show the compounds
structure

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

40

Hydrates
Hydrates are crystals that contain water
molecules, for example plaster: CaSO4 2H2O
When all the water is removed (by heating), the solid
that remains is said to be anhydrous (without water)

CuSO4 5H2O

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

CuSO4

41

Typical constituents of Portland clinker


Cement industry style notation under CCN
Clinker

CCN Mass%

Tricalcium silicate (CaO)3.SiO2

C3S

45-75%

Dicalcium silicate (CaO)2.SiO2

C2S

7-32%

Tricalcium aluminate (CaO)3.Al2O3

C3A

0-13%

Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (CaO)4.Al2O3.Fe2O3

C4AF 0-18%

Gypsum CaSO4 2 H2O

2-10%

Concrete formation
Cement chemist notation: C3S + H2O CSH(gel) + CaOH
Standard notation: Ca3SiO5 + H2O (CaO)(SiO2)(H2O)(gel)
+ Ca(OH)2
Balanced: 2Ca3SiO5 + 7H2O 3(CaO)2(SiO2)4(H2O)(gel) +
3Ca(OH)2

Learning Check:
Count The Atoms In A Chemical Formula
Na2CO3
(NH4)2SO4
Mg3(PO4)2
CuSO45H2O

___
1 C, ___
___Na,
2
3O

2
8
1 ____O
4
___N,
___H,
___S,
8
3
2 ____O
___Mg,
___P,
1
1 ___O,
10
9
___Cu,
___S,
___H

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

43

Chemical Equations
2 HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) +CO2(g)
HCl and CaCO3 are called reactants
CaCl2, H2O,CO2 are called the products

Reactants are separated from products with that


means yields
States matter: for solids use (s), liquids (l), gases (g),
and for substances dissolved in water (aqueous
solutions) use (aq).
We will learn later that the behavior of the reactants
differs based on their states!
2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

44

Balanced Equations
The number of atoms of each
type must remain the same on
each side of the arrow
subscripts must not changethey define the identity of the
substances
Coefficients- numbers in front
of formulas-- indicate the
number of molecules of each
type
Balancing achieved by
adjusting coefficients

2 H2 + O2

2 H2O

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

45

Balanced Equations
Note that the number of each type of atom balances
and that the coefficient applies to the entire formula

2.5. Formulas and equations describe substances and their reactions

46

Molecules Form When Nonmetallic Elements


Combine
Molecules are neutral particles
made of 2 or more atoms.
Many molecular compounds
contain hydrogen:

Period
2
3
4
5

IVA
CH4
SiH4
GeH4

Group
VA
VIA
NH3
H2O
PH3
H2S
AsH3 H2Se
SbH3 H2Te

VIIA
HF
HCl
HBr
HI

Noble
Gas
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe

2.6 Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called molecules

47

Alkanes
Alkanes are
hydrocarbons (contain
only C and H)
Always have a ratio of
atoms CnH2n+2
Named using a prefix
designating the
number of C
All have ane suffix.

C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Prefix
MethEthPropButPentHexHeptOctNonDec-

Suffix

Name
Methane
Ethane
Propane

+ane

2.6 Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called molecules

48

Learning Check: Name that alkane


ethane

butane

octane

2.6 Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called molecules

49

Your turn!
Which of the following is heptane?
A. C6H12
B. C7H14
C. C6H14
D. C7H16

Your turn!
Which is the correct name for C4H10?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

methane
ethane
propane
pentane
none of these butane

Other Organic Compounds


Alkenes- hydrocarbons with fewer H than the
alkanes. CnH2n. Use the same prefixes, but
have the suffix -ene.
ethylene
C2H4 : ___________
propylene
C3H6: _____________

2.6 Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called molecules

52

Other Organic Compounds (Cont.)


Alcohols- Replace one H in an alkane with an
-OH group
Same prefixes, suffix becomes anol
methanol
CH3OH is ____________
ethanol
C2H5OH is _______________

2.6 Molecular compounds contain neutral particles called molecules

53

Your Turn!
What is the name of CH3CH2CH2CH2OH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

butanol
propanol
pentanol
tetranol
none of these

Your Turn!
What is a formula for heptene?
A. C6 H12
B. C7H14
C. C6H14
D. C7H16
E. none of these

Ionic Compounds
Positively charged ions are called cations
Negatively charged ions are called anions
subscripts in the formula always specify the
smallest whole-number ratio of the ions
needed to make a neutral combination
(formula unit)
2 Fe3+

3 O2-

Fe2O 3

2.7 Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles called ions

56

What About Ions?

Number of p+ = number of e- if neutral


Number of p+ < number of e- if negative
Number of p+ > number of e- if positive
The number of p+ never changes when ions form
How does Ca form Ca2+? Ca loses 2 electrons
How is N3- formed?

N gains 3 electrons

2.7 Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles called ions

57

Learning Check:
Fill in the blanks:
Symbol
neutrons
60Co3+
33
Br-

81

65
29

Cu 2

46
36

protons

electrons

27

24

35

36

29

27

2.7 Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles called ions

58

The Charges On Many Representative Elements Can


Be Predicted
Noble gases are especially stable
Main group elements will often gain or lose
electrons to have the same number of electrons as
the nearest noble gas
Metals form cations by losing electrons
What is the expected charge on:
Ca? 2+
Na? +

Nonmetals form anions by gaining electrons


What is the expected charge on:
N? 3O? 2-

2.7 Ionic compounds are composed of charged particles called ions

59

Rules For Writing Formulas Of Ionic


Compounds

The cation is given first in the formula


The subscripts in the formula must produce an
electrically neutral formula unit
The subscripts should be the set of smallest whole
numbers possible
The charges on the ions are not included in the
finished formula of the substance

2.8 The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted

60

Ionic Compounds Are Neutral


The positive charge
must balance the
negative charge
We could use trial and
error to find the least
common charge

2.8 The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted

61

Determining The Formula Of An Ionic


Compound
Practically, we can often accomplish this by making the charge
magnitude (not the charge) of one ion into the subscript for the
other. (The Criss-cross rule)
If you choose this approach, make sure that the subscripts are
reduced to the lowest whole number.

Al O
Mg2+ O2NH4+ PO433+

2-

Al3+ O2Mg2+ O2(NH4)+ (PO4)3-

Al2O3
MgO
(NH4)3PO4

2.8 The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted

62

Your Turn!
Which of the following is the correct formula for the
formula unit composed of potassium and oxygen
ions?
A. KO
B. KO2
C. K2O
D. none of these

Your Turn!
Which of the following is the correct formula for the
formula unit composed of Fe3+ and sulfide ions?
A. FeS
B. Fe3S2
C. Fe2S3
D. none of these

Transition And Post-transition Metals Usually Have


Multiple Charges
Transition Metals
Chromium
Cr2+, Cr3+
Manganese
Mn2+, Mn3+
Iron
Fe2+, Fe3+
Cobalt
Co2+, Co3+
Nickel
Ni2+
Copper Cu+, Cu2+
Post-transition Metals
Tin
Sn2+, Sn4+
Bismuth
Bi3+

Zinc Zn2+
Silver Ag+
Cadmium Cd2+
Gold Au+, Au3+
Mercury Hg22+, Hg2+

Lead

Pb2+, Pb4+

2.8 The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted

65

Some Polyatomic Ions


(Ions With Two Or More Atoms):
NH4+

Ammonium ion

CO32-

carbonate ion

OH-

hydroxide ion

H3 O+

hydronium ion

NO2-

nitrite ion

SO32-

sulfite ion

NO3-

nitrate ion

SO42-

sulfate ion

ClO2-

chlorite ion

CrO42-

chromate ion

ClO3-

chlorate ion

Cr2O72- dichromate ion

PO43-

phosphate ion

2.8 The formulas of many ionic compounds can be predicted

66

The Stock System Of Naming Ionic Compounds


Cations:
If the metal forms only one positive ion, the cation
name is the English name for the metal
If the metal forms more than one positive ion, the
cation name is the English name followed, without a
space, by the numerical value of the charge written as
a Roman numeral in parentheses

Anions:
monatomic anions are named by adding the ide
suffix to the stem name for the element
polyatomic ions use the names in Table 2.5

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

67

Naming Binary Molecules


The first element in the formula is identified by its
English name, the second by appending the
suffix ide to its stem
Chemical
Symbol
O
N
P
Cl
I

Name as
Stem
First Element
oxoxygen
nitrnitrogen
phosph- phosphorus
chlorchlorine
iodiodine

Name as
Second Element
oxide
nitride
phosphide
chloride
iodide

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

68

Naming Binary Covalent Molecules


Format:
number prefix + 1st element name number prefix + stem_ide for 2nd element.

Greek prefixes
mono- = 1 (omitted on 1st atom)
di=2
tri=3
tetra- = 4
penta- = 5

hexa- = 6
hepta- = 7
octa= 8
nona- = 9
deca- = 10

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

69

Learning Check: Name The Following


PF5 = phosphorus pentafluoride
HCl = hydrogen chloride

N2O5 = dinitrogen tetraoxide


or dinitrogen tetroxide

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

70

Your Turn!
Which is the correct formula for nitrogen
triiodide?
A. N3I
B. NI3
C. NIO3
D. N(IO3)3
E. none of the above

Your Turn!
Which is the correct name for P4O10?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

phosphorus decoxide
tetraphosphorous decoxide
tetraphosphorus decoxide
tetraphosphorus oxide
none of these

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

73

Learning Check: Name The Following


Na2O
K2O
NH4ClO3
Mg(C2H3O2)2
Cr2O3
ZnBr2

sodium oxide
potassium oxide
ammonium chlorate
magnesium acetate
chromium(III) oxide
zinc bromide

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

74

Learning Check: Determine The Formula


calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2

mercury(I) nitride
(Hg2)3N2

ammonium phosphate
(NH4)3PO4

2.9 Molecular and ionic comounds are named following a system

75

Your Turn!
Which is the correct name for Cu2S?
A.
B.
C.
D.

copper sulfide
copper(II) sulfide
copper(I) sulfide
none of these

Your Turn!
Which is the correct formula for ammonium sulfite?
A. NH4SO4
B. (NH4)2S
C. NH4S
D. none of these

(NH4)2SO3

Overview: Molecules vs. Formula Units


electrically neutral, discrete particles called
molecules
Neutral groups of charged particles called
formula units

78

Summary of Properties
Hardness and brittleness
Molecular compounds tend to be soft and easily crushed
because the attractions between molecules are weak and
molecules can slide past each other
Ionic compounds are hard and brittle because of the strong
attractions and repulsions between ions

79

Melting Points
To melt the a solid, there must be sufficient kinetic
energy to overcome the attractions between particles
Molecular compounds have weak attractions between
particles and so tend to have low melting points
Many molecular compounds are gases at room
temperature
Ionic compounds tend to have strong attractions so they
have high melting points
Nearly all ionic compounds are solids at room
temperature

80

Electrical Conductivity
Requires the movement of electrical
charge
Ionic compounds:
Do not conduct electricity in the solid state
Do conduct electricity in the liquid and
aqueous states-the ions are free to move

Molecular compounds:
Do not conduct electricity in any state
Molecules are comprised of uncharged
particles

81

Your Turn!
Which of the following is likely true of NO2?
A.
B.
C.
D.

it conducts electricity well


It has a low melting point
It is likely a solid in its pure form
None of these