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Tires and Wheels

Objectives
Describe basic wheel and hub design.
Recognize the basic parts of a tubeless tire.
Explain the differences between the three
types of tire construction in use today.
Explain the tire ratings and designations in
use today.

Objectives (Contd)
Describe why certain factors affect tire
performance, including inflation pressure,
tire rotation, and tread wear.
Remove and install a wheel and tire
assembly.
Dismount and remount a tire.
Repair a damaged tire.

Objectives (Contd)
Describe the difference between static
balance and dynamic balance.
Balance wheels both on and off a vehicle.
Describe the three popular types of wheel
hub bearings.

Wheel Dimensions
Diameter
The outside diameter of the rim

Width
The width of the wheel between the beads

Offset
The vertical distance between the wheels
vertical centerline and the mounting face of the
wheel

Wheel Dimensions (Contd)

Types of Tire Construction


Bias ply
Has a body of fabric plies that run alternately at opposite
angles.

Belted bias ply


Has two or more belts around the circumference of the tire
under the tread.

Radial Ply
Has body cords that run at a 90-degree angle to the
circumference of the tire.

Meaning of a P205/75R15
Tire Designation
P =
205 =
75 =
R =
15 =

Passenger car tire


Tire width (in millimeters)
Height to width ratio (in %)
Identifying radial construction
Rim diameter (in inches)

Tire Aspect Ratio

Tire Replacement Conditions

Bulges
Blisters
Ply separation
Broken or cracked beads
Fabric cracks or cuts
Wear indicators showing
Punctures larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm)

Three Types of Tire Repair


Head-type plug
A plug is inserted into the puncture from the
outside.

Cold patch repair


A patch is glued to the inside of the tire.

Hot patch repair


Similar to a cold patch, but heat is used to make
it adhere to the tire.

Lug Nut Tightening

Front Wheel Bearing


Service Tips
Always replace the race and bearing as an
assembly.
Take care not to get any grease on the brake
disc.
Use a bearing packer if available.
Tighten the locknut to the manufacturers
specification.

Checking Wheel Runout

Wheel Balance
Static balance
Is the equal distribution of weight around the
wheel.
Static unbalance causes wheel tramp.

Dynamic Balance
Is the equal distribution of weight on either side
of the centerline.
Dynamic unbalance causes wheel shimmy.

Dynamic Balance

Summary
Wheels are typically made of either
stamped or pressed steel discs or die-cast or
forged aluminum or magnesium.
Pneumatic tires are of two types: those that
use inner tubes and those that do not.
There are three types of tire construction in
use today: bias ply, belted bias ply, and
radial ply.

Summary (Contd)
Tires are rated by their profile, ratio, size, and load
range.
An ideal tire is one that wears little, holds the road
well to provide sure handling and braking, and
provides a cushion from road shock.
There are basically four categories of tread
patterns: directional, non-directional, symmetric
and asymmetric.

Summary (Contd)
To maximize tire performance, inspect for
signs of improper inflation and uneven
wear.
A properly inflated tire gives the best tire
life, riding comfort, handling stability, and
even gas mileage during normal driving
conditions.

Summary (Contd)
To equalize tire wear, most car and tire
manufacturers recommend that the tires be
rotated.
There are three popular methods of tire
repair: head-type plug, cold patch repair,
and hot patch repair.
There are two types of wheel balancing:
static balance and dynamic balance.