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EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD

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THE CHIEF MONASTIC ORDERS WERE AS FOLLOWS :


The Benedictine Order
(1)

Was founded during the sixth century in South Italy by S.


Benedict, who decreed that architecture, painting, and all
branches of art were to be taught.

(2)

All the older monasteries in England, including those of


Canterbury and Westminster , belonged to this Order.

(3)

The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having


on one side an aisled church of cruciform plan, a transept
of which bounded one side of the cloister.

(4)

The refectory was generally on the opposite side parallel to


the nave, while the dormitory was on another side with a
stair to the church for night services.

(5)

The original plan preserved in the library of the Monastery


of S. Gall, Switzerland, is a record of the typical plan of

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MONASTERY OF S. GALL

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The Cluniac Order

Was founded A.D. 909 with the celebrated Abbey of Cluny as


headquarters.

The plan had double transepts, a feature adopted in many


English cathedrals, as Lincoln and Salisbury.

The Cistercian Order

Was founded A.D. 1098 at Citeaux, Burgundy.

The typical church was divided transversely into three parts by


screens, walls, or steps, and there were often no aisles, while
the transepts and eastern arm of the cross were short, so that
the choir extended westward of the transepts.

There was an absence of towers and painted glass.

The Cistercian influence extended to various countries of


Europe, and in England the Abbeys of Furness, Fountains ,
Roche, and Kirkstall belonged to this Order.

The Augustinian Order

Differed little from the Benedictine and was introduced into


England in A.D. 1105. Bristol, Carlisle, and Oxford Cathedrals,
also S. Bartholomew the Great, London, were founded by this
Order.

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The Premonstratensian Order

Was instituted at Premontre, Picardy (A.D. 1119).

Castle Acre Priory and Bayham Abbey are examples of their


monastic buildings in England.

The Carthusian Order

Was founded by S. Bruno about A.D. 1080.

The Grande Chartreuse, near Grenoble, is the French


headquarters, and other monasteries of this Order were at
Vauvert, Clermont (Auvergne), besides the Certosa near
Florence, the Certosa near Pavia, and the Charterhouse,
London.

Two churches were usually provided, one for the monks and
the other for the people.

The typical feature was the great rectangular cloister,


surrounded by an arcade on to which opened the monks' cells,
which were self-contained and had their own gardens.

By the rules of the Order, speech was interdicted, and the


Carthusians had to work, eat, and drink in solitude, and such a
regime explains the original severity of their architecture.

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The Military Orders

Included the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers, or


Knights of S. John.

Their churches were circular in plan and are supposed to have


been on the model of the Rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre,
Jerusalem.

The Temple Church, London, and those at Cambridge, Little


Maplestead, and Northampton were founded by these Orders.

THE FRIARS (FRATRES, FRERES, HENCE FRIARS)

There were several Orders, of later origin, and their churches


were large, plain, and without aisles, designed for
preaching.

(A)

THE DOMINICANS (PREACHING OR BLACK FRIARS)

()

Founded by S. Dominic about AM. 1170, and came to England


about A.D. 1217. Fra Angelico was the best-known member of

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(B)

THE FRANCISCANS (MENDICANT OR GREY FRIARS)

()

Founded by S. Francis of Assisi, A.D. 1209, and came to


England A.D. 1224.
Roger Bacon was one of the most distinguished members of

()

this Order, which was noted for intellectual attainments.


(C)

The Carmelites (White Friars)

()

Were expelled from Mount Carmel by the Saracens (A.D.


1098), but only came to England A.D. 1229.

(D)

The Austin Friars (or Hermits).

(E)

The Friars of the Holy Trinity, instituted A.D. 1197.

(F)

The Crutched (or Crouched) Friars, instituted in Bologna


A.D. 1169.

(9) The Jesuits


()

Were established as a counterforce to the Reformation, and

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DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE

Little survives of the vernacular architecture of the medieval period due


to the use of perishable materials.

Most domestic buildings were built on timber frames, usually with wattle
and daub infill.

Roofs were typically covered with thatch

Wooden shingles were also employed, and from the 12th century tile
and slate came into use in some areas.

Also around the 12th century, the cruck frame was introduced,
increasing the size of timber framed vernacular buildings.

Typically, houses of this period were based around a great hall open
from floor to roof.

One bay at each end was split into two storeys and used for service
rooms and private rooms for the owner.

Buildings surviving this period included moated manor houses of which


Ightham Mote is a notable late medieval example, and Wealden hall
houses such as Alfriston Clergy House.

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ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE

Architecture of the Anglo-Saxon period exists only in


the form of churches, the only structures commonly
built in stone apart from fortifications.

The earliest examples date from the 7th century,


notably at Bradwell-on-Sea and Escomb, but the
majority from the 10th and 11th centuries.

Due to the systematic destruction and replacement of


English cathedrals and monasteries by the Normans,
no major Anglo-Saxon churches survive. The largest
extent example is at Brixworth.

The main material is ashlar masonry, sometimes


accompanied by details in reused Roman brick.

Anglo-Saxon churches are typically high and narrow


and consist of a nave and a narrower chancel; these
are often accompanied by a west tower.

All Saints' Church,


Earls Barton

Some feature porticus (projecting chambers) to the

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Anglo-Saxon architecture

All Saints' Church, Earls Barton

Architecture of the Anglo-Saxon period exists only in the


form of churches, the only structures commonly built in
stone apart from fortifications. The earliest examples date
from the 7th century, notably at Bradwell-on-Sea and
Escomb, but the majority from the 10th and 11th
centuries. Due to the systematic destruction and
replacement of English cathedrals and monasteries by the
Normans, no major Anglo-Saxon churches survive; the
largest extant example is at Brixworth.

The main material is ashlar masonry, sometimes


accompanied by details in reused Roman brick. AngloSaxon churches are typically high and narrow and consist
of a nave and a narrower chancel; these are often
accompanied by a west tower. Some feature porticus
(projecting chambers) to the west or to the north and
south, creating a cruciform plan. Characteristic features
include quoins in 'long-and-short work' (alternating vertical
and horizontal blocks) and small windows with rounded or
triangular tops, deeply splayed or in groups of two or
three divided by squat columns. The commonest form of
external decoration is lesene strips (thin vertical or
horizontal strips of projecting stone), typically combined
with blind arcading. Notable examples of this exist at Earls
Barton, Bradford-on-Avon and Barton-upon-Humber.

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