Torsion

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Torsion

© All Rights Reserved

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Torsion Formula , Power Transmission

Torsional Deformation of

a circular shaft

Length BD

when

BD x

x dx

d

dx

max c

d

dx

max

dx

c

max

Angular strain is proptional to shear stress:

max

Mean:

highest shear stress: will be at farthest

away from center

At the center point, there will be no

angular strain and therefore no shear

stress is developed.

dF dA

dT dA

T

dA

( c )

max

c

max

dA

dA

A

dA

A

dA

A

max

max

Tc

J

Shear stress due to torsion at radius

max

Tc

T

J

4

Polar Moment of Inertia (J)

Solid shaft

Tubular shaft

c4

d 4

32

(co ci )

(d o 4 d i 4 )

32

Solve it!

The solid circular shaft is subjected to an

internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine

the shear stress developed at point A

and B. Represent each state of stress on

a volume of element.

Solve it!

The solid circular shaft is subjected to an

internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine

the shear stress developed at point A

and B. Represent each state of stress on

a volume of element.

T

(5000)(10) 3 ( 40)

49.7 MPa

r 4 / 2

( 40) 4 / 2

T

(5000)(10) 3 (30)

37.3MPa

4

4

r / 2

( 40) / 2

Example 1

The shaft shown in figure is supported

by two bearings and is subjected to

three torques. Determine the shear

stress developed at points A and B,

located at section a-a of the shaft.

Point A

R = 0.075 m

J = Jtotal

T = internal torque

c4

Point B

R = 0.015 m

J = Jtotal

T = internal torque

(75) 4 49.7(10) 6 mm 4

T

J

T

1250(10 3 ) Nmm(75) mm

1.886 MPa

6

4

J

49.7(10) mm

T

1250(10 3 ) Nmm(15) mm

0.377 MPa

6

4

J

49.7(10) mm

Solve it!

Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft at

section a-a.

10

T

J

Maximum Torsional Shear

T:2100 Nm = 2100(10)3 Nmm

: 40 mm

J: tubular

Polar Moment of Area

(R r )

4

( 40 4 30 4 ) 2.75(10) 6 mm 4

max

Tr

2100(10) 3 ( 40)

30.55MPa

6

J

2.75(10)

11

Solve it!

The solid shaft has a diameter of 40 mm. Determine the absolute

maximum shear stress in the shaft.

12

T:70 Nm = 70(10)3 Nmm

: 20 mm

J: solid r =20 mm

Tr

Tr

4

J

( )r

2

70(10) 3 ( 20)

max

) 20 4

5.57 MPa

13

Power Transmission

Power

P T

P: power (1 Watt = 1 Nm/s)

T: torque (Nm)

: radian/s

Input n(rpm)

( rad / sec) n(

rev

rad 1 min

) 2 (

)

(

)

min

rev 60 sec

( rad / sec) 2f

14

Solve it !

The gear motor can develop 1.6kW when it turns at 450

rev/min. If the shaft has a diameter of 25mm, determine

the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.

Calculate the T

47.12rad / s

Maximum shear

stress

rev

rad 1 min

)2 (

)

(

)

min

rev 60 sec

P

1600

33.96 Nm

w 47.12

Tc

Tc

J

c 4 / 2

33.96(10) 3 (12.5)

(12.5) 4 / 2

11.07 MPa

max

Solve it !

The gear motor can develop 2.4kW when it turns at 150

rev/min. If the allowable shear stress for the shaft is allow

= 84 Mpa, determine the smallest of the shaft to nearest

multiples of 5mm that can be used.

Solve it !

Calculate the T

15.7 rad / s

Maximum shear

stress

rev

rad 1 min

) 2 (

)

(

)

min

rev 60 sec

P

2400

152.87 Nm

w

15.7

Tc

Tc

J

c 4 / 2

152.87(10) 3 (c )

(c ) 4 / 2

max

97,320 / c 3

Calculate d

max all

97,320 / c 3 84

c 10.5

d 21

d 25mm

Angle Twist

TL

JG

Lecture 1

TL

JG

19

Sign Convention

from the part

Lecture 1

20

Solve it!

The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel

shaft are subjected to the torques shown. Determine the

angle of twist of end B with respect to end A. The shaft

has a diameter of 40 mm.

TL

JG

T L

T L

T L

AC AC CD CD DB DB

JG

JG

JG

300Nm

300Nm

500Nm

200Nm

AC

Tac= 300Nm

400Nm

TAC LAC

( 300)(10) 3 (300)

JG

JG

500Nm

Tcd=200Nm

300Nm

400Nm

Tdb =400Nm

DB

CD

TCD LCD

( 200)(10) 3 ( 400)

JG

JG

TDB LDB

( 400)(10) 3 (500)

JG

JG

(190,000)(10) 3

(190,000)(10) 3

T

JG

( / 2)( 20) 4 (75)(10) 3

0.01008rad 0.578o

Solve it !

The two shafts are made of A-36 steel. Each has a

diameter of 25mm, and they are supported by bearings at

A, B and C, which allow free rotation. If the support at D is

fixed, determine of the angle of twist of end B and A when

the toques are applied to the assembly as shown.

Direction of FF

TF TG

FF (100) 60(10) 3

FF 600 N

FF

TE TF

Direction of FE

TD FE 150 600(150)

90,000 Nmm 90 Nm

FE

Direction of FF

TD 120 90 0

TD 30 Nm

3ONm

3ONm

9ONm

12ONm

TL

JG

3ONm

DC

CE

9ONm

FE

9ONm

TDC LDC

(30)(10) 3 ( 250)

JG

JG

TCE LCE

( 90)(10) 3 (750)

JG

JG

TCE LCE

60,000(10) 3

60,000(10) 3

0.02086(10) 3 rad

4

3

JG

JG

/ 2(12.5) 75(10)

L12 E RE

L13 F RF

F

E RE

RF

0.02086(150)

100

0.03129rad

B 3.129(10) 3 rad

Angle of twist at end A

A F A / F

A 3.129(10) 3

3.129(10) 3

TL

JG

60(10) 3 ( 250)

/ 2(12.5) 4 (75)(10) 3

0.03129 5.215(10) 3

0.0365rad 2.09 o

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