You are on page 1of 26

Torsion

Torsional Deformation of a circular shaft,


Torsion Formula , Power Transmission

Torsional Deformation of
a circular shaft
Length BD
when

BD x

x dx

d

dx

max c

d
dx

max
dx
c

max

The Torsion Formula


Angular strain is proptional to shear stress:

max

Mean:
highest shear stress: will be at farthest
away from center
At the center point, there will be no
angular strain and therefore no shear
stress is developed.

The Torsion Formula


dF dA
dT dA
T

dA

( c )
max
c

max

dA

dA
A

dA
A

dA
A

max

max

Tc
J

J: Polar moment of area

Maximum shear stress due to torsion


Shear stress due to torsion at radius

max

Tc

T
J
4

Polar Moment of Inertia


Polar Moment of Inertia (J)

Solid shaft

Tubular shaft

c4

d 4
32

(co ci )

(d o 4 d i 4 )
32

Solve it!
The solid circular shaft is subjected to an
internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine
the shear stress developed at point A
and B. Represent each state of stress on
a volume of element.

Solve it!
The solid circular shaft is subjected to an
internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine
the shear stress developed at point A
and B. Represent each state of stress on
a volume of element.

T
(5000)(10) 3 ( 40)

49.7 MPa
r 4 / 2
( 40) 4 / 2

T
(5000)(10) 3 (30)

37.3MPa
4
4
r / 2
( 40) / 2

Example 1
The shaft shown in figure is supported
by two bearings and is subjected to
three torques. Determine the shear
stress developed at points A and B,
located at section a-a of the shaft.

Point A
R = 0.075 m
J = Jtotal
T = internal torque

c4

Point B
R = 0.015 m
J = Jtotal
T = internal torque

(75) 4 49.7(10) 6 mm 4

T=4.25 3.0 = 1.25 kNm

T

J

T
1250(10 3 ) Nmm(75) mm

1.886 MPa
6
4
J
49.7(10) mm

T
1250(10 3 ) Nmm(15) mm

0.377 MPa
6
4
J
49.7(10) mm

Solve it!
Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft at
section a-a.

10

T

J
Maximum Torsional Shear
T:2100 Nm = 2100(10)3 Nmm
: 40 mm
J: tubular
Polar Moment of Area

(R r )
4

( 40 4 30 4 ) 2.75(10) 6 mm 4

Max torsional shear when r = 40mm

max

Tr
2100(10) 3 ( 40)

30.55MPa
6
J
2.75(10)
11

Solve it!
The solid shaft has a diameter of 40 mm. Determine the absolute
maximum shear stress in the shaft.

12

Maximum Torsional Shear


T:70 Nm = 70(10)3 Nmm
: 20 mm
J: solid r =20 mm

Tr
Tr

4
J
( )r
2
70(10) 3 ( 20)

max

) 20 4

5.57 MPa

13

Power Transmission
Power

P T
P: power (1 Watt = 1 Nm/s)
T: torque (Nm)
: radian/s

Input n(rpm)

( rad / sec) n(

Input frequency of shaft rotation

rev
rad 1 min
) 2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

( rad / sec) 2f
14

Solve it !
The gear motor can develop 1.6kW when it turns at 450
rev/min. If the shaft has a diameter of 25mm, determine
the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.

( rad / sec) 450(

Calculate the T

47.12rad / s

Maximum shear
stress

rev
rad 1 min
)2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

P
1600

33.96 Nm
w 47.12

Tc
Tc

J
c 4 / 2
33.96(10) 3 (12.5)

(12.5) 4 / 2
11.07 MPa

max

Solve it !
The gear motor can develop 2.4kW when it turns at 150
rev/min. If the allowable shear stress for the shaft is allow
= 84 Mpa, determine the smallest of the shaft to nearest
multiples of 5mm that can be used.

Solve it !
Calculate the T

( rad / sec) 150(


15.7 rad / s

Maximum shear
stress

rev
rad 1 min
) 2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

P
2400

152.87 Nm
w
15.7

Tc
Tc

J
c 4 / 2
152.87(10) 3 (c )

(c ) 4 / 2

max

97,320 / c 3

Calculate d

max all
97,320 / c 3 84
c 10.5
d 21
d 25mm

Angle Twist

TL

JG
Lecture 1

TL
JG
19

Right hand rule

Sign Convention

+ve: direction of the thumb is away


from the part

Lecture 1

20

Solve it!
The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel
shaft are subjected to the torques shown. Determine the
angle of twist of end B with respect to end A. The shaft
has a diameter of 40 mm.

TL
JG
T L
T L
T L
AC AC CD CD DB DB
JG
JG
JG

300Nm

300Nm

500Nm

200Nm

AC

Tac= 300Nm

400Nm

TAC LAC
( 300)(10) 3 (300)

JG
JG

500Nm
Tcd=200Nm
300Nm

400Nm

Tdb =400Nm

DB

Total angle of twist:

CD

TCD LCD
( 200)(10) 3 ( 400)

JG
JG

TDB LDB
( 400)(10) 3 (500)

JG
JG

(190,000)(10) 3
(190,000)(10) 3
T

JG
( / 2)( 20) 4 (75)(10) 3
0.01008rad 0.578o

Solve it !
The two shafts are made of A-36 steel. Each has a
diameter of 25mm, and they are supported by bearings at
A, B and C, which allow free rotation. If the support at D is
fixed, determine of the angle of twist of end B and A when
the toques are applied to the assembly as shown.

Equilibrium of shaft AGFB

Direction of FF

TF TG
FF (100) 60(10) 3
FF 600 N

FF

Equilibrium at gear F and E

TE TF

Direction of FE

TD FE 150 600(150)
90,000 Nmm 90 Nm
FE

Direction of FF

Equilibrium of shaft DCE

TD 120 90 0
TD 30 Nm

3ONm


3ONm

9ONm

12ONm

TL
JG

3ONm

DC

CE
9ONm

FE

9ONm

TDC LDC
(30)(10) 3 ( 250)

JG
JG
TCE LCE
( 90)(10) 3 (750)

JG
JG

TCE LCE
60,000(10) 3
60,000(10) 3

0.02086(10) 3 rad
4
3
JG
JG
/ 2(12.5) 75(10)

Length of arc 12 = length of 13

L12 E RE
L13 F RF
F

E RE

RF

0.02086(150)
100
0.03129rad

Angle of twist at end B = angle of twist at F FB : there is no torque

B 3.129(10) 3 rad
Angle of twist at end A

A F A / F
A 3.129(10) 3
3.129(10) 3

TL
JG
60(10) 3 ( 250)
/ 2(12.5) 4 (75)(10) 3

0.03129 5.215(10) 3
0.0365rad 2.09 o