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# Torsion

## Torsional Deformation of a circular shaft,

Torsion Formula , Power Transmission

Torsional Deformation of
a circular shaft
Length BD
when

BD x

x dx

d

dx

max c

d
dx

max
dx
c

max

## The Torsion Formula

Angular strain is proptional to shear stress:

max

Mean:
highest shear stress: will be at farthest
away from center
At the center point, there will be no
angular strain and therefore no shear
stress is developed.

dF dA
dT dA
T

dA

( c )
max
c

max

dA

dA
A

dA
A

dA
A

max

max

Tc
J

## Maximum shear stress due to torsion

Shear stress due to torsion at radius

max

Tc

T
J
4

## Polar Moment of Inertia

Polar Moment of Inertia (J)

Solid shaft

Tubular shaft

c4

d 4
32

(co ci )

(d o 4 d i 4 )
32

Solve it!
The solid circular shaft is subjected to an
internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine
the shear stress developed at point A
and B. Represent each state of stress on
a volume of element.

Solve it!
The solid circular shaft is subjected to an
internal torque of T= 5kNm. Determine
the shear stress developed at point A
and B. Represent each state of stress on
a volume of element.

T
(5000)(10) 3 ( 40)

49.7 MPa
r 4 / 2
( 40) 4 / 2

T
(5000)(10) 3 (30)

37.3MPa
4
4
r / 2
( 40) / 2

Example 1
The shaft shown in figure is supported
by two bearings and is subjected to
three torques. Determine the shear
stress developed at points A and B,
located at section a-a of the shaft.

Point A
R = 0.075 m
J = Jtotal
T = internal torque

c4

Point B
R = 0.015 m
J = Jtotal
T = internal torque

(75) 4 49.7(10) 6 mm 4

## T=4.25 3.0 = 1.25 kNm

T

J

T
1250(10 3 ) Nmm(75) mm

1.886 MPa
6
4
J
49.7(10) mm

T
1250(10 3 ) Nmm(15) mm

0.377 MPa
6
4
J
49.7(10) mm

Solve it!
Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft at
section a-a.

10

T

J
Maximum Torsional Shear
T:2100 Nm = 2100(10)3 Nmm
: 40 mm
J: tubular
Polar Moment of Area

(R r )
4

( 40 4 30 4 ) 2.75(10) 6 mm 4

## Max torsional shear when r = 40mm

max

Tr
2100(10) 3 ( 40)

30.55MPa
6
J
2.75(10)
11

Solve it!
The solid shaft has a diameter of 40 mm. Determine the absolute
maximum shear stress in the shaft.

12

## Maximum Torsional Shear

T:70 Nm = 70(10)3 Nmm
: 20 mm
J: solid r =20 mm

Tr
Tr

4
J
( )r
2
70(10) 3 ( 20)

max

) 20 4

5.57 MPa

13

Power Transmission
Power

P T
P: power (1 Watt = 1 Nm/s)
T: torque (Nm)

Input n(rpm)

## Input frequency of shaft rotation

rev
) 2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

14

Solve it !
The gear motor can develop 1.6kW when it turns at 450
rev/min. If the shaft has a diameter of 25mm, determine
the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.

## ( rad / sec) 450(

Calculate the T

Maximum shear
stress

rev
)2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

P
1600

33.96 Nm
w 47.12

Tc
Tc

J
c 4 / 2
33.96(10) 3 (12.5)

(12.5) 4 / 2
11.07 MPa

max

Solve it !
The gear motor can develop 2.4kW when it turns at 150
rev/min. If the allowable shear stress for the shaft is allow
= 84 Mpa, determine the smallest of the shaft to nearest
multiples of 5mm that can be used.

Solve it !
Calculate the T

## ( rad / sec) 150(

Maximum shear
stress

rev
) 2 (
)
(
)
min
rev 60 sec

P
2400

152.87 Nm
w
15.7

Tc
Tc

J
c 4 / 2
152.87(10) 3 (c )

(c ) 4 / 2

max

97,320 / c 3

Calculate d

max all
97,320 / c 3 84
c 10.5
d 21
d 25mm

Angle Twist

TL

JG
Lecture 1

TL
JG
19

Sign Convention

## +ve: direction of the thumb is away

from the part

Lecture 1

20

Solve it!
The splined ends and gears attached to the A-36 steel
shaft are subjected to the torques shown. Determine the
angle of twist of end B with respect to end A. The shaft
has a diameter of 40 mm.

TL
JG
T L
T L
T L
AC AC CD CD DB DB
JG
JG
JG

300Nm

300Nm

500Nm

200Nm

AC

Tac= 300Nm

400Nm

TAC LAC
( 300)(10) 3 (300)

JG
JG

500Nm
Tcd=200Nm
300Nm

400Nm

Tdb =400Nm

DB

## Total angle of twist:

CD

TCD LCD
( 200)(10) 3 ( 400)

JG
JG

TDB LDB
( 400)(10) 3 (500)

JG
JG

(190,000)(10) 3
(190,000)(10) 3
T

JG
( / 2)( 20) 4 (75)(10) 3

Solve it !
The two shafts are made of A-36 steel. Each has a
diameter of 25mm, and they are supported by bearings at
A, B and C, which allow free rotation. If the support at D is
fixed, determine of the angle of twist of end B and A when
the toques are applied to the assembly as shown.

## Equilibrium of shaft AGFB

Direction of FF

TF TG
FF (100) 60(10) 3
FF 600 N

FF

## Equilibrium at gear F and E

TE TF

Direction of FE

TD FE 150 600(150)
90,000 Nmm 90 Nm
FE

Direction of FF

## Equilibrium of shaft DCE

TD 120 90 0
TD 30 Nm

3ONm

3ONm

9ONm

12ONm

TL
JG

3ONm

DC

CE
9ONm

FE

9ONm

TDC LDC
(30)(10) 3 ( 250)

JG
JG
TCE LCE
( 90)(10) 3 (750)

JG
JG

TCE LCE
60,000(10) 3
60,000(10) 3

4
3
JG
JG
/ 2(12.5) 75(10)

L12 E RE
L13 F RF
F

E RE

RF

0.02086(150)
100