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Population of Rome: 2.8 million inhabitants

Area:1,285 km2 (580 sq mi)
Region: Lazio
Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters
(September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers
(May to September)



Founded 753 B.C.E., Romulus

Until 509 BC, when Rome became a republic, the
city was reigned by an Etruscan dynasty of
Tarquin Kings. They built a sewer, the 'Cloaca
Maxima', to drain water from the marshlands of
the valley between thePalatine,Capitoline and
Esquiline hills to the Tiber river.


From then on the area became a center of activity

and it was the political heart of Rome until the fall
of the Roman Empire more than one thousand
years later. It was the site of the first forum. Here,
triumphal processions took place, elections were
held and the Senate assembled.

Ancient Rome

The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the

central area of the city around which ancient
Romedeveloped. Here was where commerce,
business, prostitution, cult and the administration of
justice took place. Space where religious activities
were conducted and the communal hearth of the city.
The Roman Forum was designed by the architect
Vitruvius with proportions 3:2 (length to
width). For centuries, the Forum Romanum was the
site of the city's most important public buildings,
such as the Arch of Septimius Severus, built in AD203
and the Roman Forum Rostra or platforms for public

Forum Romanum

Ancient Rome

The reliefs on the triple arch represented many of

Rome's victories over oriental tribes and the
Rostra was decorated with prows of warships
captured during battles. The Roman Forum
became the spectacular showcase of theRoman
Empirefilled with beautiful statues and

The Roman Forum


Today, the forum known as the Forum Romanum can look

like a disorderly collection of ruins to the uninitiated, but
with some imagination you can see the Roman Empire
come back to life at this site. Remains of many buildings
from different periods are visible; the forum was littered
with temples, basilicas and triumphal arches.


Colosseum and The Arch of Constantine

The Trevi Fountain

Streets of Rome

Streets of Rome
have some
characteristics of a
walkable street.
o Convivial

Concentration of
Streets contain
relatively large
numbers of

Streets of Rome

o Residential Densities

Large concentrations of people must either live within walking

distance of the street, or the street needs to be a connecting
conduit between two (or more) highly attractive destinations.

Streets of Rome
o Active and Diverse Retail

the street to be lined with a

rich collection of healthy,
diverse, local retail

Streets of Rome
o Traffic-Calming

Streets contain relatively

low-speed motor vehicle

Streets of Rome
o Active Building Fronts

Having doors and ample windows

facing the street creates visual
interest for the pedestrian.

Streets of Rome

o Vista Termination

locate important civic buildings such as churches, city

halls and libraries at the termination of a street vista.

Great Squares

St. Peter's Square - a massive plaza located directly in front of St.

Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City, the papal enclave surrounded by Rome.

Great Squares

Piazza Navona - a city square in

Rome, Italy. It is built on the site of
the Stadium of Domitian, built in
1st century AD, and follows the
form of the open space of the

Great Squares

Spanish Steps - a set of steps in Rome,

Italy, climbing a steep slope between the
Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza
Trinit dei Monti, dominated by the Trinit
dei Monti church at the top. The Scalinata
is the widest staircase in Europe.