You are on page 1of 20

Communication:

An Overview

Questions to Ponder:
1. State
the
definition
of
communication;
2. Explain the main types of
communication;
3. Describe the three models of
communication; and
4. Discuss the different forms of oral
communication

Why study communication?


enables us to improve our skills at
interacting with people.
improve careers prospects.
an essential part of our lives.
the need to communicate to larger
audience

Defining Communication
Communication is a systemic
process in which people interact
with and through symbols to create
and interpret meanings (Wood
(2009).
Devito (2009) lists six elements
which are present in all
communication acts:
Context, source-receiver, message,
channel, noise, effect

Types of Communication
Camp & Satterwhite (2002)
there are three types of
communication:
1. oral communication
2. written communication
3. non-verbal Communication

Public
speaking

Face-to-face
conversations

meetings

oral
communication

Oral
presentation

Teleconferencing
voice
mail
messages

graphs
charts

Minutes
Of
meetings

letters

Written
communication

faxes

reports

memos

tables
New
releases

diagrams

emails

appearance
posture
Eye-contact
nervousness
grooming
dressing

The Purposes of Communication

MODELS OF
COMMUNICATION

Linear Model
Laswells (1948) model views
communication as a one-way or
linear process in which the
speaker speaks and the listener
listens
Shannon and Weavers (1949)
model

Interactive Model
Schramm (1955) in Wood (2009) came out
with a more interactive model that saw the
receiver or listener providing feedback to the
sender or speaker.
The speaker or sender of the message also
listens to the feedback given by the receiver
or listener.
Both the speaker and the listener take turns
to speak and listen to each other. Feedback
is given either verbally or non-verbally, or in
both ways

Transactional Model
The transactional model shows that
the elements in communication are
interdependent.
views communication as an ongoing
and continuously changing process
which takes into consideration the
effects of noise, time, and systems.
communicators can send and receive
messages simultaneously.

In the transactional model, two people


communicate with multiple messages
through what may be multiple channels
and with parallel messages.
As with other models, the messages may
be distorted and the people may be
distracted, resulting in misunderstanding
that hinders the model
Example

A: Hi there!
B: Well hello, how are you?
A: What are you up to, today?
B: I'm just going to work. What about you?

Forms of Oral Communication


Model
1. Intrapersonal communication - Self
talk with our self.
2. Interpersonal communication Communicate with other people.
3. Small group communication Communication, between five to 10.
4. Public Communication or Public
Speaking - The speaker speaks to a
big audience.

5. Mass Communication - A form of

communication to many people all


around the world.
6. Corporate Communication - Takes
place in organisations.
7. Intercultural Communication Communication between people from
different
culture
and
different
ethnicities.