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Horizontal Diaphragms

by Bart Quimby, P.E., Ph.D


UAA Civil Engineering
CE 434 - Timber Design

Lateral Forces
Lateral forces result from either wind
loading or seismic motion.
In either case, the diaphragms are generally
loaded with distributed loads.
The example here is more closely
associated with wind loading.

The Building

Tributary Areas

Loadings for Roof Diaphragm


The upper beam
diagram is for loading in
the 2 direction.
The lower beam
diagram is for loading in
the 1 direction.
The distributed loads
equal the pressure times
the tributary height of
the exposed area.
The unit shears equal the
beam reaction divided
by the length of the edge.

Loadings for Floor Diaphragm


Note that the unit
shears at the ends of
the diaphragm are the
result of the interaction
with the shear walls
that are providing
lateral support for the
diaphragm.
These forces are
transferred to the shear
walls.

Elements for Direction 1

Idealized Diagram for Dir. 1


Green arrows are unit
shears at edge of roof
diaphragm.
Yellow arrows are unit
shears at edge of floor
diaphragm.
Shear in upper part of
shear wall is from roof
diaphragm only.
Shear (red arrows )in
lower part of shear wall
includes both horizontal
diaphragms.

Shear Wall Free Body Diagram

Elements for Direction 2

Idealized Diagram for Dir. 2


Green arrows are unit
shears at edge of roof
diaphragm.
Yellow arrows are unit
shears at edge of floor
diaphragm.
Shear in upper part of
shear wall is from roof
diaphragm only.
Shear (red arrows )in
lower part of shear
wall includes both
horizontal diaphragms.

Shear Wall Free Body Diagram

Another View

Amrhein, James E
Reinforced Masonry Engineering
Handbook, 4th edition

Diaphragms are Beams


Like beams, diaphragms carry loads in bending.
Wood diaphragms are considered to be simply
supported.
This results in both internal bending moment and
shear.
The diaphragm can be considered to be similar to
a wide flange beam where the flanges (diaphragm
chords) take all the bending and the web (the
plywood sheathing) takes all the shear.
In diaphragms, the shear force is expressed in
terms of unit shear.

Beam Behavior of Diaphragms

Amrhein, James E
Reinforced Masonry Engineering
Handbook, 4th edition

Diaphragm Forces in Dir. 1


C = M / L1
v = w(L2)/(2L1)

M = w(L2)2/8
T = M / L1

Unit shear, v, equals the shear force, V, at


a location along the span divided by the
depth of the diaphragm at that location.
Moment is taken by chord forces whose
magnitudes equal the Moment at a
particular location divided by the
diaphragm depth at the same location.

Diaphragm Forces in Dir. 2

v = w(L2)/(2L1)

The diaphragm must be


analyzed and designed to
handle the forces in both
principle directions.
T = M / L2

C = M / L2

Maximum Diaphragm Ratios


2003 IBC
IBC Table 2305.2.3 (text pg C.42) - Rules of
Thumb used to control diaphragm deflections.
If the span to width ratios are too large, then the
diaphragm is not stiff enough to transfer the forces
without significant deflection.
Deflection is a function of beam bending, shear
deflection, nail slip in diaphragm and slip in chord
connections.

Shear Capacity of Horizontal


Wood Diaphragms
2003 IBC
UBC Table 2306.3.1 (pgs C.45-C.47)
Also see Special Design Provisions for Wind & Seismic Table A.4.2A

Shear capacity depends on the following design variables:


supporting member species
plywood grade
nail size (and penetration)
plywood thickness (normally selected for vert. loads)
support widths
nail spacing
blocking
layup

Footnote a
Use of supporting lumber species other than
Douglas Fir or Southern Pine
(1) find specific gravity of supporting framing
(see NDS Table 11.3.2A, NDS pg 74)
For Staples: Use Structural I values multiplied by
either 0.82 or 0.65 depending on specific gravity
of supporting members.
For Nails: Use values from table for actual grade
of plywood used multiplied by min[(.5+S.G),1]

Footnote b
Field nailing requirement
Spacing of fasteners along intermediate
framing to be 12 O.C. unless supporting
member spacing equals 48 or more, then
use 6 O.C. nail spacing.

Use With Wind Loads


IBC-03 2306.3.1 states:
The allowable shear capacities in Table
2306.3.1 for horizontal wood structural
panel diaphragms shall be increased 40
percent for wind design

Some Definitions
Nailing:
Boundary nailing: Nailing at all intersections
with shear walls. (parallel to direction of force.)
Edge nailing: nailing along any other
supported plywood edge.
Field nailing: nailing along supports but not at
a plywood edge.

Layup cases (See IBC Table 2306.3.1)

Nailing Definitions

Chord Design
The chords are axial force
members that generally have
full lateral support in both
principle directions.
The top plates of the supporting
walls are generally used as the
chord members.
Due to the reversing nature of
the loads being resisted, the
chord forces are considered to
be both tension and
compression.
Design as an axial force
member.

Typical Chord
Roof Chord Member

Example
Consider the building introduced in the
lecture on structural behavior:

We spent some time


determining forces in the
horizontal and vertical
diaphragms (shear walls)
in an earlier lecture.

Applied Forces: Wind


Direction #1
Roof = 12,000 # = 200 plf
2nd flr = 6,300 # = 105 plf

Direction #2
Roof = 5,200 # = 60 plf to 200 plf
2nd flr = 4,200 # = 105 plf

Roof Diaphragm:
Direction 1
Parameters:

C-DX plywood
2x Hem Fir Framing
Vmax = 150 plf
Case I layup

Design nailing for the


diaphragm (IBC)
Unblocked, 8d nails
Vallow = 1.4*240 *(1-(.5-.43))
Vallow = 313 plf > Vmax

Roof Diaphragm: Direction 2


Parameters:

C-DX plywood
2x Hem Fir Framing
Vmax = 43.3 plf
Case 3 layup

Design nailing for the


diaphragm
Unblocked, 8d nails
Vallow = 1.4*180*(1-(.5-.43))
Vallow = 234 plf > Vmax

Roof Diaphragm Sheathing


Summary
After determining
the needs in each
direction the design
of the roof can be
specified.

Result:
C-DX plywood
Unblocked
8d @ 6 O.C. Edge
and Boundary
nailing
8d @ 12 O.C.
Field nailing

Roof Diaphragm Chords:


Direction 1
Moment = 90 ft-k
Depth = 40 ft
Chord Force = + 2.25 k

Roof Diaphragm Chords:


Direction 2
Moment = 82.7 ft-k
Depth = 60 ft
Chord Force = + 1.38 k

Chord Design
Hem Fir #2

Try (1) 2x4


Check Tension:

Try (1) 2x4


Check Compression:

Ft = (525 psi)(1.6)(1.5)

Fc = (1300 psi)(1.6)(1.15)

Ft = 1260 psi
ft = 2250 # / 5.25 in2

Fc = 2392 psi
fc = 2250 # / 5.25 in2

ft = 429 psi < Ft

fc = 429 psi < Fc

(1) 2x4 is adequate in both


directions