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You are on page 1of 29

138)

Course Information

Credit Hours: 3

Contact Hours:

Lecture (2hrs/week)

Tutorial (1hr/week)

Practical (2 hrs/week)

Assessment

Comprehensive Final Examination 50%

Tests (3 Tests) 30%

Quizzes & Assignments 10 %

Weekly Practical Report 10 %

COURSE CONTENT

1. Units of Measurement

2. Elements, Compounds, Chemical Equations

and Calculations

3. Concepts of Acid-Base Neutralization

4. Structure of an Atom

5. Periodic Table

6. Chemical Bonds

7. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions (Redox)

8. Introduction to Organic Chemistry

CHAPTER 1

UNITS OF

MEASUREMENTS

S.I Units

Significant figures

Scientific notation

Dimensional analysis

Conversion of S.I units

CHEMISTRY

Chemistry is the study of matter and

the changes it undergoes.

Either macroscopic or microscopic

(atomic or molecular) approach.

Macroscopic

Microscopic

CHANGES in CHEMISTRY

A physical change does not alter the

composition or identity of a substance.

Examples are ice melting and sugar

dissolving.

A chemical change alters the composition

or identity of the substance(s) involved.

Examples hydrogen burns in air to form

water.

hydrogen burns in air to

form water

MEASUREMENTS

Measurements of the macroscopic properties can be

determined directly.

Pipette, burette, measuring cylinder to measures the

volume

Thermometer measures the temperature

Balance measures the mass

Stop watch measures the time

Measurements of the microscopic properties must be

determined by indirect method.

Mass spectrometer measure the molecular or atomic

mass

Spectrophotometer measure the energy, frequency,

wavelength, due to excitation, vibration, rotation or

stretching of the molecules

number with appropriate unit. Units are

essential to state measurement correctly.

SI UNITS

units.

S.I is a revised metric system which abbreviated

from French Systeme Internationale dUnites

or International Systems of Units.

There are 7 S.I Unit where all other units in world

is derived from these S.I Units.

Quantity

SI to English Equivalent

English to SI Equivalent

Length

1 km = 0.6214 mile

1 m = 1.094 yard

1 m = 39.37 inches

1 cm = 0.3937 inch

1 mi = 1.609 km

1 yd = 0.9144 m

1 ft = 0.3048 m

1 in = 2.54 cm

Volume

1 dm3 = 0.2642 gal

1 dm3 = 1.057 qt

1 cm3 = 0.03381 fluid ounce

1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3

1 gal = 3.785 dm3

1 qt = 0.9464 dm3

1 qt = 946.4 cm3

1 fluid ounce = 29.57 cm3

Mass

1 kg = 2.205 lb

1 g = 0.03527 ounce (oz)

1 lb = 0.4536 kg

1 oz = 28.35 g

Length

Memorise this!

Matter - anything that occupies space and has

mass

mass measure of the quantity of matter

S.I unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)

1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 103 g

weight force that gravity exerts on an object

weight = c x mass

on earth, c = 1.0

1 kg on earth

on moon, c ~ 0.1

0.1 kg on moon

Volume

S.I derived unit for

volume is cubic meter

3

(m

)

3

1 cm = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3

1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3

1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3

1 mL = 1 cm3

Density

Density S.I derived unit for density is

kg/m3

3

1 g/cm3 = 1 g/mL

=

1000

kg/m

m

mass

density = volume d = V

density of 21.5 g/cm3 has a volume of

4.49 cm3m

. What is its mass?

d= V

m==

d x21.5

V g/cm3 x 4.49 cm3 = 96.5 g

Temperatures

Kelvin ( K )

The Absolute temperature scale begins

at absolute zero and only has positive

values.

Celsius ( oC )

The temperature scale used by science,

formally called centigrade, most

commonly used scale around the world.

Water freezes at 0oC and boils at 100oC.

Fahrenheit ( oF )

Commonly used scale in the U.S. for

o

Temperatures

K = C + 273.15 F =

0

273.15 K = 0 0C

373.15 K = 100 0C

9 x 0C + 32

5

32 0F = 0 0C

212 0F = 100 0C

16

9

Celsius.

0

F=

x 0C + 32

5

0

F 32 = 9 x 0C

5

5 x (0F 32) = 0C

9

0

C = 5 x (0F 32)

9

0

C=5

x (172.9 32) = 78.3 0C

9

Scientific Notation

The number of atoms in 12 g of

carbon:

602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000

6.022 x 1023

The mass of a single carbon atom in

grams:

0.0000000000000000000000199

1.99 x 10-23

N x 10n

N is a number

between 1 and 10

n is a positive or

negative integer

Scientific Notation

568.762

0.00000772

n>0

n<0

568.762 = 5.68762 x 102 0.00000772 = 7.72 x 10-6

Addition or Subtraction

1. Write each quantity

with the same

exponent n

2. Combine N1 and N2

3. The exponent, n,

remains the same

103

= 4.31 x 104 +

0.39 x 104

= 4.70 x 104

Scientific Notation

Multiplication

1. Multiply N1 and N2

-5+3

=

(4.0

x

7.0)

x

(10

)

2. Add exponents n1 and n2

= 28 x 10-2

= 2.8 x 10-1

Division

4

9

8.5

x

10

5.0

x

10

1. Divide N1 and N2

4-9

=

(8.5

5.0)

x

10

2. Subtract exponents n1 and n2

= 1.7 x 10-5

Significant Figures

1.234 kg

606 m

1 significant figure

the right of the decimal point are significant

2.0 mg

3 significant figures

not significant

0.08 L

4 significant figures

2 significant figures

that are at the end and in the middle of the

number are significant

0.00420 g

3 significant figures

each of the following measurements?

24 mL

2 significant figures

3001 g

4 significant figures

0.0320 m3

3 significant figures

2 significant figures

560 kg

3 significant figures

Significant Figures

Addition or Subtraction

The answer cannot more digits to the right of the decimal

point than any of the original numbers.

89.332

+1.1

90.432

3.70

-2.9133

0.7867

1 decimal point

round off to 90.4

1 decimal point

2 decimal point

round off to 0.79

2 decimal point

Significant Figures

Multiplication or Division

The number of significant figures in the result is set

by the original number that has the smallest number

of significant figures.

4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 = 16.5

3 sig figs

3 sig figs

2 sig figs

2 sig figs

Significant Figures

Exact Numbers

Numbers from definitions or numbers of

objects are considered to have an infinite

number of significant figures

The average of three measured lengths; 6.64, 6.68

and 6.70?

6.64 + 6.68 + 6.70

= 6.67333 = 6.67 = 7

3

Because 3 is an exact number

true value

Precision how close a set of measurements

are to each other

accurate

&

precise

precise

but

not accurate

not accurate

&

not precise

Dimensional Analysis

Method of Solving Problems

1. Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed

2. Carry units through calculation

3. If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then

the problem was solved correctly.

given quantity x conversion factor = desired quantity

given unit x

desired unit

given unit

= desired unit

Dimensional Analysis

Method of Solving Problems

How many mL are in 1.63 L?

Conversion Unit 1 L = 1000 mL

1000 mL

1.63 L x

= 1630 mL

1L

2

1L

L

1.63 L x

= 0.001630

1000 mL

mL

m/s. What is this speed in miles per

hour?

conversion units

meters to miles

seconds to hours

1 mi

60 s

m

x

x

343

s 1609 m

1 min

60 min

mi

x

= 767

hour

1 hour

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