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Introduction

to Research
Dr. Ayaz
Muhammad Khan

Content
Research
Variable
Types

of variable
Hypothesis
Advantages of hypothesis
Disadvantages of hypothesis
Types of hypothesis

RESARCH
Re

means thoroughly, completely as in


refrigrator (Around the questions
thoroughly)
Search from Latin word
CURCUS(Cheche)Around
Method of creating knowledge

What is Research
the

systematic process of collecting and


analyzing information (data) in order to
increase our understanding of the
phenomenon about which we are concerned
or interested.1
Research is not a straight road, but a
system of bends, crossroads, and turns.
Sometimes you need to retrace your
steps or change direction, depending on
what you find.

Business
A

persons regular occupation, profession


or trade
The process of making ones living by
engaging in commerce the world of
business

Business Education
Business

research is a field of practical study in


which a company obtains data and analyzes it in
order to better manage the company. Business
research can include financial data, consumer
feedback, product research and competitive
analysis. Executives and managers who use
business research methods are able to better
understand their company, the position it holds
in the market and how to improve that position.

Financial Data
Financial

data takes qualitative


information--such as sales reports,
revenues and cost reports--to see what
areas make money and what costs
money. By reviewing data, managers
can find the products, staff and
departments that are most efficient and
determine areas of unnecessary costs.

Consumer Feedback
Understanding what the public says about
the products and services a company
provides is essential to making sure the
company is meeting consumer needs.
Customer feedback includes case studies,
focus groups, customer surveys and
questionnaires.

Product Research
Product

research seeks to improve the


product to meet the needs of
consumers. This may include
technological advancements, improved
customer service or access to the
product through a variety of distribution
channels.

Competitive Analysis
Competitive

analysis is when one


company compares its products and
services to those of another company.
This can be done to improve the
product, create a niche or determine a
more attractive price point to lure
customer

Kerlinger
the

systematic, controlled, empirical


and critical investigation of hypothetical
propositions about presumed relations
among natural phenomena. (1970,p. 8)

Paradigm Paralysis
A paradigm is a model or a pattern. It's
a shared set of assumptions that have
to do with how we perceive the world.
Paradigms are very helpful because
they allow us to develop expectations
about what will probably occur based
on these assumptions. But when data
falls outside our paradigm, we find it
hard to see and accept. This is called
the PARADIGM EFFECT.

Paradigm Paralysis
And when the paradigm effect is
so strong that we are prevented
from actually seeing what is
under our very noses, we are
said to be suffering from
paradigm paralysis

Paradigm Shift
Paradigms: the Business of
Discovering the Future" By Joel
Barker
In 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote The
Structure of Scientific Revolution
a radical change in underlying
beliefs or theory

General Characteristics of
Research
Empirical
Systematic
Valid
Reliable
Research

can take on a variety of forms

Systematic
Research

is systematic and within a


broad framework follows steps of the
scientific method. How ever across
different types of studies there is
extensive flexibility in how the steps are
implemented

Validity
Capable

of being justified
Internal validity is the extent to which
the results of the research can be
interpreted accurately and with
confidence.
External validity is the extent to which
research results are generalizable to
population and/or conditions

Reliability
It

concerns the replicability and


consistency of the methods, conditions,
and results.

1. Gaining experience is an uncontrolled


and haphazard activity, while research
is systematic and controlled.
2. Reasoning can operate in an abstract
world, divorced from reality, while
research is empirical and turns to
experience and the world around us for
validation.

3 Unlike experience and reason, research


aims to be self-correcting. The process
of research involves rigorously testing
the results obtained, and methods and
results are open to public scrutiny and
criticism.

Knowledge
Sensation
Perception
Conception

Concepts
Concepts

corresponds to the
characteristics of the things and not the
object.
We write down the representations we
perceive in our head through symbols.
They are of two types:
1. Attributes
2. Properties

Variable
Variable

is a concept that corresponds


to properties that can take different
values

Models
An

overall frame work for looking at


reality
It tells what reality is about and basic
elements it contains (ontology)and what
is the nature and status of knowledge
(Epistemology).
Like behaviorism, feminism

Concept
An

idea deriving from a given model


Stimulus response (behaviorism)
Concepts offers ways of looking at the
world which are essential in defining a
research problem.

Theory
A

set of concepts used to define and / or


explain some phenomenon. With out
theory there is nothing to research.
It provides a basis for considering how
what is unknown might be organized.

Hypothesis
A

testable proposition. Unlike theories,


hypothesis are tested in research. In
many qualitative researches there is no
specific hypothesis at the outset.

Methodology
A

general approach for studying


research topics
It refers to the choices we make about
cases to study, method of data
gathering, forms of data analysis etc. in
planning and execution of a study. In
social science research methodologies
may be defined very broadly (qualitative
or quantitative)

Method
A

specific research technique.


These include quantitative techniques
like statistical correlation as well as
qualitative techniques like observation,
interviewing, and audio recording.

Categorical Hypothesis
If

I see A, I also see B but it does not


mean that A causes B

Sequential hypothesis
If

I see A, B emerges and if do nothing


to A, B does not change

Determinant
If

B is influenced, it is only because of A


and nothing else

Serendipity
A

thing we find for which we were not


looking

Variables
Variables

are the building blocks of


hypotheses that are held together by
the glue of the relationship we are
studying.
Bolton and Parker (1992) define a
variable as characteristics of persons
or things that can take on two or more
values (p. 341).

Cont.
A

key element is that variables refer to


characteristics that are not fixed but
are able to vary, that is, to take on
more than one value. For example, the
word green would not be a variable
but shades of green could be a
variable. One inch is not a variable,
however, length, which could be
operationally defined as the number of
inches as measured by a ruler would be
a variable.

Example

Sex
English proficiency
Income
Nationality
IQ scores

Why variables are


important

In quantitative research, they are what the


researchers measure
Researchers

in quantitative studies look at

how variables are different in different groups


how variables change over time
how a change in circumstances can change the variable.

Quantitative vs.
Categorical Variables
Quantitative

variable:
Exist in some degree along a continuum
from less to more, and we can assign
numbers to different individuals or objects to
indicate how much variables they possess.
E.g.
Height
Weight
Interest
Length

Categorical Variables
Do

no vary in degree, amount or


quantity but are qualitatively different.
Eye color
Gender
Religious preference
Occupation

EXAMPLE
Research

in education often study the


relationship
Two quantitative variables
One categorical and one quantitative
variables
Two or more categorical variable

Two quantitative variables


Age

and amount of interest in school


Classroom humanism and student
motivation
Amount of time and mathematic
achievement

One categorical and one


quantitative variable
Method

used to teach reading and


reading achievement
Counseling approach and level of
anxiety
Student gender and amount of praise
given by teacher

Two categorical variable


Ethnicity

and father occupation


Gender of teacher and subject taught
Religious affiliation and political party
membership.

Other variable
2.

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or


Ratio

Nominal: Names, classes, or


symbols designating unique
characteristics - simple
classification, no order.

Cont.
Ordinal:

Assignment of numbers of
symbols indicates order of relationship.
For example if an ordinal scale used the
numbers from 1 to 6, one could say that
6 was greater that 3, but one could not
say that it was twice the value of 3.
Rank order data is an example of ordinal
data.

Cont.

Interval: This type of data has the same


ordering properties as ordinal data and it
also has equal, meaningful intervals and
an arbitrary zero point. Therefore in an
interval scale, 4.5 would be meaningful.

Ratio: This type of data has the same


properties as interval data and also has
an absolute zero point. In a ratio scale, 6
would be twice as much as 3.

Independent
A

variable that is independent of the


outcome being measured. More
specifically[it is] what causes or
influences the outcome (Marczyk et
al., p. 46).
Note that categorical variables can
also be independent variables. E.g.
the number of teachers

Dependent variable:

is a measure of the effect (if any) of the


independent variable (Marczyk et al. 2005, p.
44)

The term dependent implies it is influenced by


the independent variable (Marczyk, et al, p. 46).
Response variable or output. The factor that is
observed or measured to determine the effect of
the independent variable (Tuckman, 1988).
Dependent Variables are also referred to as
Outcome Variables

Dependent variable
Note

that the dependent and


independent classifications are not
as readily applicable to ex post
facto studies in which relationships
rather than causality are studied.
They are similarly not applicable to
descriptive studies.
Dependent also quantitative variable is
the amount of science learning.

Independent vs.
dependent variables
Independent
variables
(Possible
cause )

Affect
s

Dependent
variable
(presumed
result)

QUESTION TIME

Question
Will

students who are taught by a


team of three teachers learn more
science than student taught by one
individual teacher?
what are the independent and
dependent variables in this question?

Answer
Independent
variable

Independent
variable
Independent

Three teachers
One teacher

Amount of
science learning

variable may be either


manipulated of selected.

Examples
Independent variable

Dependent variable

Gender (categorical)

Musical aptitude
(quantitative)

Mathematical ability
(quantitative)

Career choice (categorical)

Gang membership
(categorical)

Subsequent material status


(categorical)

Test anxiety (quantitative)

Test performance
(quantitative)

Moderator variable
It

is secondary independent variable


that has been selected for study in order
to determine if it is effect the basic
relationship between primary
independent variable and the
dependent variable.

Example
Anxiety

affects test performance, but


the correlation is markedly lower for
students with test taking experience.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE = anxiety
level
Moderator variable = test-taking
experience
Dependent variable = test
performance

Extraneous variable
A

variable which influence or effect the


independent and dependent variable
are extraneous variable. E.g.
Personality of consumer
Experience level of people

Hypothesis
The hypothesis states the expected
answer to the research question
knowing that the investigation results
will lead to its being supported or
not supported or retention or
rejection .
A hypothesis is an educated-guess
regarding the answer to a research
question.

Example:
Research Question: What is the effect of
preschool training on the achievement
of culturally disadvantaged children in
the first grade

Hypothesis: Culturally disadvantaged


children who have had preschool
training achieve at a higher level in
first grade than culturally
disadvantaged children who have not
had preschool training.

Not all studies have


hypotheses:

for example if you have little insight


into the problem as in survey or
descriptive research for example
if you want to know the opinions or
attitudes of groups

qualitative research rarely has a


hypothesis in the beginning usually
is generated as data accumulates

Hypothesis
A

hypothesis is a statement describing


the relationship between two variables.
Although it is possible to form a
hypothesis from logic or from pure
speculation, a good hypothesis is
founded on established theories or
developed from the results of the
previous researches. Specifically a good
hypothesis should be the logical
conclusion of a logical argument

Consider the following example


Premise

1: Academic success is highly


valued and respected by society(at least
by parents and society)
Premise 2: Being valued and respected
by others contribute to high self esteem
Conclusion or hypothesis: higher level of
academic success are related to higher
levels of self esteemed.
Facts or research results leads to
hypothesis

Testable hypothesis
A

testable hypothesis is one in which all


the variables , events and individuals
are real and can be defined and
observed
There is a relationship between
intelligence and creativity

A Refutable hypothesis
That

can be demonstrated to be false.


That is , the hypothesis allows the
possibility that the out come will differ
from the prediction.
A good research hypothesis must also
be refutable.
There is no relationship between age
and memory ability.

Not testable Not refutable


The

more sins a person commits, the


less likely he or she is to get into heaven
If people could fly, there would be
substantially fewer cases of depression

Deriving a hypothesis:
Hypotheses derived inductively from
observations of behavior
or

deductively from theory or from findings


of previous research

Inductive hypothesis
Inductive

hypothesis the researcher


observes behavior, notices trends or
probable relationships and then
hypothesizes an explanation for this
observed behavior.
Example: Children score higher on final
measures of first-grade reading
achievement when they are taught in
small groups rather than large groups

Deductive hypothesis
to arrive at the logical consequences of
the theory
example: Piagets classic theory on the
development of logical thinking in
children suggested stages in mental
development for example, concrete
operations where kids move from
dependence on perception to use more
logic using this as a starting point

Cont.
hypothesize

that the proportion of


9-year-olds that will be able to
correctly respond to the liquid
conservation task will be greater
than the proportion of 5-year- olds

Advantages of hypothesis
Force

us to think deeply about the


possible outcome of the study.
Involve philosophy of science.
Help us to see if we are, or are not,
investigating a relationship. If not, we
may be promoted to formulate one.

Disadvantages of
hypothesis
May

lead to biasness.
It may be unnecessary or inappropriate
in survey and ethnographic studies.
Focusing attention on hypothesis may
prevent from noticing other phenomena
that might be important to the study.

Types of hypothesis
(a) directional there is a positive
relation between self-esteem and
reading achievement or
(b) non directional there is a
relationship between self-esteem and
reading achievement

Null hypothesis
The

null hypothesis is often noted as


H0 (H-sub-zero). What does "null"
mean? Often researchers test what is
called the nil null hypothesis. It
means "nothing," "zero." In research
terms, it means "no effect," "no
difference," "no relationship." If, at
the end of our study, we conclude
that the null hypothesis has the best
chance of being true, we mean that
"nothing happened.

Cont.
Null

hypotheses are stated when there


is little existing research or
theoretical
support for a hypothesis.

Alternative hypothesis
The

alternative hypothesis is usually


noted as Ha (H-sub-a) or H1 (H-sub-one).
If there's more than one alternative
hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis asserts that
"something happened" (there is a
difference or that there is a
relationship). The alternative hypothesis
is the one you'd like to accept as being
true, since it would suggest that your
program worked.
One does not directly test the
alternative hypothesis; one either
rejects or fails to reject the null