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ELECTROLYTIC

CELL
ASTI AWALIA (05)
INTANI MUNDIARTASARI (09)
RIZKY RIANZA (20)

1.Definition
An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical
cell that uses electric energy in order to
undergo chemical reaction. In electrolytic
cell, positive terminal is a place of
oxidation process, so its called anode.
Meanwhile negative terminal is a place of
reduction process, so its called cathode.
Electrolytic cell is opposite of voltaic cell.

2. Work Principle
The work principle of electrolytic cell is
electron (electric) come into solution
through negative terminal (anode).
Certain specie in solution absorb electron
from cathode and undergo reduction.
Other specie released electron in anode
and undergo oxidation. Those situations
will influence to redox reaction process
which happen, those are:
electrode materials
ions round about electrode
matter or ion round about non active
electrode
sum of ion in solution

3. Electrolytic Reactions
Electrolytic reaction in electrolyte solution
happened more complex. Specie which
reacted not only cat ion and anion, but aslo
the water or the electrode. Those are
depend
on the potential specie in the
solution. To write the electrolytic electrolyte
solution, factors that must be attend are :
1. The reactions which competitive in each
electrode.
a) Specie which undergo reduction in cathode is
specie which has positiver potential reduction.
b) Specie which undergo oxidation in anode is
specie which has negativer potential reduction,
or the positiver potential reduction.

2.Kind of electrode, is that inert or non inert


electrode.
Inert electrode is an electrode which not
include in the reaction. Meanwhile non inert
electrode is an electrode which reacted in
electrolytic process.

Reactions which happened in Anode and


Cathode
1. Reactions which happened in Anode

If anode from Pt, Au, or C, anode have inert


characteristic. The reaction is:
OH- ion oxidized.
4OH ( aq ) 2 H 2 O(l ) O2 ( g ) 4e

Rest of oxide acid (SO4, NO3, CO3) not


oxidized, meanwhile water is oxidized.
2 H 2 O( l ) 4 H ( aq ) O2 ( g ) 4e

If there are anode non inert (except Pt, Au, or


C) so anode is oxidized.

L( s ) Lx ( aq ) xe
2. Reactions which happened in cathode

Metal ion
Alkali metal ion, earth alkali, Al3+, and
metal ion with Eo<-0.83 volt is not reduced,
but which reduced is water (solvent).

2 H 2 O( l ) 2e H 2 ( g ) 2OH ( aq )

Metal ion with Eo>-0.83 volt is reduced into


its xmetal.

( aq )

xe L( s )

H+ ion from acid reduced into H2

2 H ( aq ) 2e H 2 ( g )
If used solid (without water), so that metal cation
is reduced
x

(l )

xe L( s )

1) Faradays Law
I The amount of matter which

resulted from
electrolytic reaction compared with amount of
electric current which flew into solution. This
situation can be drawn with Faradays Law I :
The quantity of substance produced at electrode is
equal to the quantity of electricity passing through
the electrolysis.

The formula :

ei t
W
F

W eF
Ar
e
n

W
= the quantity of the product
substances (g)
e
= equivalent weight
F
= faradays constant (F)
i
= electricity (A)
t
= time of reaction (second)
1 faraday = 1 electron = 96,500

2) Faradays Law II
If the same quantities of electricity are passed
through several electrolytic cells, the product
substances resulted by each cell equals to the
equivalent weight and does not depend on the kind of
substances involved in the electrolysis.
The formula :

Wn
W1 W2

....
e1
e2
en

Where :
W
= the quantity of the product
substances (g)
e
= equivalent weight
F
= electricity (F)
i
= electricity (A)
t
= time of reaction (second)

Mr
e
Electron that involved

4. The Using of Electrolytic Cell


1) Coating Process
The metal coating by electrolysis is
called electroplating. The metal which
will be coated is used as cathode,
whereas coating metal is used as anode.
The electrolyte solution used in process
is the solution which contains coating
metal. For example, the process coating
iron spoon by using silver metal (Ag).

Iron spoon acts as cathode, whereas silver bar


acts as anode. Electrolyte solution used is AgNO 3
solution. Ag+ ion will be reduced at cathode
(spoon) to form Ag metal which adheres to the
spoon. Because the anode used is not inert
electrode, Ag metal will be oxidized to form Ag +
ion, which is used to supply electron until whole
part of the spoon is coated.
Cathode
: Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s)
1
Anode : Ag(s)
Ag+(aq) + e- 1
+
Ag+(aq) + Ag(s)
Ag(s) +Ag+(aq)

2) Purified Metal Principle


Metals can be obtained by separating them
from the metal ores. After being separated, they
are not pure yet because they are still mixed with
other metals in the ores. To purify them, the metal
mixtures have to be electrolyzed. For example, the
purification process of Cu metal.
Cathode
: Cu2+(aq) + 2eCu(s)
2
Anode : 2H2O(l)
4H+(aq)+O2(g)+4e- 1
+
2Cu2+(aq)+2H2O(l)
2Cu(s)+4H+(aq)+O2(g)

EXAMPLE
1.Find the electrolytic result from the
melted of MgCl2 with Pt electrode !
Answer :
Cathode : Mg2+(l) + 2eAnode

: 2Cl- (l)

Cl2 (g) + 2e-

Mg2+(l) + 2Cl- (l)


(g)

Mg(s)
+
Mg(s) +Cl2

2. Find the electrolytic result from the solution of


CuCl2 with C electrode !
Answer :
Cathode
Anode

: Cu2+(aq) + 2eCu(s)
: 2Cl-(aq)
Cl2(g) + 2e+
Cu2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)
Cu(s) + Cl2(g)

3. 1,930 coulomb of electricity is flowed to electrolysis


of AgNO3 solution (Ar Ag = 108, N = 14, O = 16).
What is the quantity of precipitate formed at the
cathode?

Answer :
AgNO3(aq)

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

Cathode
: Ag+(aq)+eAg(s)
Anode : 2H2O(l)
4H+(aq)+O2(g)+4e+
4Ag+(aq)+2H2O(l)

4
1

Ag(s)+4H+(aq)+O2(g)

e = 108 = 108
1
F = 11,930 = 0.02 faraday
96,500

W = e F = 108 0.002 = 2.16 grams

EXERCISES

1. Find the electrolytic result from the solution


of CuSO4 with Ag electrode !
2. Find the electrolytic result from the solution
of MnSO4 with Pt electrode !
3. When electrolysis between copper (II)
sulphate with electricity 30 A as long as T
second happen reaction:
Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s)
Mass of Cu which forming 4,93 gram. Find T! (Ar
Cu=63,5)
4. Same electricity flowed into solution of
CuSO4 and CrCl3 (Ar Cu = 63,5;Cr=52). If
0,987 grams of Cu sedimented , then how
many Cr that sedimented?

5. In a process of electrolysis, 1930 C of electricity


passing through inside a melted element
electrolyte and sedimented 1,5 gram of element X
at katode. If Ar X = 150 and IF = 96500 C, find e!
6. Find mass of Cu which sedimented if electrolysis
of CuCl2 using electricity 5 Faraday! (Ar Cu =
63,5)
7. Electricity 5 Faraday flowed through 3 solution
which contain ion of Copper, ion of Silver and ion
of Aluminium if known mass of sedimented
aluminium are 2009 grams, find the sedimented
mass of other elements! ( Ar Cu = 63,5 ; Ag =
108 ; Al=27)

8. For sedimented all of copper from 200 ml


of solution CuSO4 1 M with electricity 10
ampere need time? (Ar Cu= 63,5)
9. In a process of electrolysis, 1930 C of
electricity passing through inside a melted
element electrolyte and sedimented 1,5
gram of element X at katode. If Ar X = 150
and IF = 96500 C, find e!
10. How many Faraday which needed so it
can
reducted 1 M of Chlorate, ClO3become Cl2 in acid solution are?

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR
ATTENTION