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2.

Processes

作者 : 陳鍾誠
單位 : 金門技術學院資管系
Email: ccc@kmit.edu.tw
URL :
http://ccc.kmit.edu.tw

日期 : 01/17/10
2.1. Introduction to Processes
 2.1.1. The Process Model
 2.1.2. Process Creation

 2.1.3. Process Termination

 2.1.4. Process Hierarchies

 2.1.5. Process States

 2.1.6. Implementation of Processes

 2.1.7. Threads

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2.1 The Process Model

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2.1.2 Process Creation

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2.1.3 Process Termination

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2.1.4 Process Hierarchy

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2.1.5 Process States

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2.1.6 Implementation of
Processes

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2.1.7 Threads

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2.2. Interprocess
Communication
 2.2.1. Race Conditions
 2.2.2. Critical Sections

 2.2.3. Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting

 2.2.4. Sleep and Wakeup

 2.2.5. Semaphores

 2.2.6. Mutexes

 2.2.7. Monitors

 2.2.8. Message Passing

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2.2.1 Race Conditions

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2.2.2 Critical Section

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2.2.3 Mutual Exclusion with
Busy Waiting
 Disabling Interrupts
 Lock Variables

 Strict Alternation

 Peterson’s Solution

 The TSL instruction

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Disabling Interrupts

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Lock Variables

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Strict Alternation

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Peterson’s Solution

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The TSL instruction

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2.2.4 Sleep and Wakeup

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The Producer-Consumer
Problem

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2.2.5 Semaphores

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Solving the Producer-
Consumer Problem using
Semaphores

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2.2.6. Mutexes

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2.2.7. Monitors

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Solving the Producer-
Consumer Problem using
Monitor (1)

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Solving the Producer-
Consumer Problem using
Monitor (2)

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2.2.8. Message Passing

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2.3. Classical IPC Problems
 2.3.1. The Dining Philosophers Problem
 2.3.2. The Readers and Writers Problem

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2.3.1. The Dining
Philosophers Problem
(DPP)

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A nonsolution to DPP

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A solution to DPP (1)

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A solution to DPP (2)

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2.3.2. The Readers and
Writers Problem

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2.4. Scheduling
 2.4.1. Introduction to Scheduling
 2.4.2. Scheduling in Batch Systems

 2.4.3. Scheduling in Interactive Systems

 2.4.4. Scheduling in Real-Time Systems

 2.4.5. Policy versus Mechanism

 2.4.6. Thread Scheduling

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2.4.1. Introduction to
Scheduling
 Process Behavior
 When to Schedule

 Categories of Scheduling Algorithms

 Scheduling Algorithm Goals

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Process Behavior

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Scheduling Algorithm
Goals

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2.4.2. Scheduling in Batch
Systems
 First-Come First Served
 Shortest Job First

 Shortest Remaining Time Next

 Three-Level Scheduling

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First-Come First Served

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Shortest Job First

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Shortest Remaining Time
Next

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Three-Level Scheduling

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2.4.3. Scheduling in
Interactive Systems
 Round-Robin Scheduling
 Priority Scheduling

 Multiple Queues

 Shortest Process Next

 Guaranteed Scheduling

 Lottery Scheduling

 Fair-Share Scheduling

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Round-Robin Scheduling

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Priority Scheduling

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Multiple Queues

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Shortest Process Next

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Guaranteed Scheduling

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Lottery Scheduling

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Fair-Share Scheduling

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2.4.4. Scheduling in Real-
Time Systems

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2.4.5. Policy versus
Mechanism

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2.4.6. Thread Scheduling

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2.5. Overview of Processes
in MINIX 3
 2.5.1. The Internal Structure of MINIX 3
 2.5.2. Process Management in MINIX 3

 2.5.3. Interprocess Communication in MINIX 3

 2.5.4. Process Scheduling in MINIX 3

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2.5.1. The Internal Structure
of MINIX 3

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2.5.2. Process Management
in MINIX 3

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Minix Startup

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Some Important MINIX 3
system components

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Initialization of the Process
Tree

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2.5.3. Interprocess Communication
in MINIX 3

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2.5.4. Process Scheduling in MINIX
3
 Round-Robin

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2.6. Implementation of
Processes in MINIX 3
 2.6.1. Organization of the MINIX 3 Source Code
 2.6.2. Compiling and Running MINIX 3
 2.6.3. The Common Header Files
 2.6.4. The MINIX 3 Header Files
 2.6.5. Process Data Structures and Header Files
 2.6.6. Bootstrapping MINIX 3
 2.6.7. System Initialization
 2.6.8. Interrupt Handling in MINIX
 2.6.9. Interprocess Communication in MINIX 3
 2.6.10. Scheduling in MINIX 3
 2.6.11. Hardware-Dependent Kernel Support
 2.6.12. Utilities and the Kernel Library
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2.6.1. Organization of the
MINIX 3 Source Code

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (1)
 boot/ : 啟動相關的程式碼 (addaout.c, boot.c/h, bootlock.s, boothead.s, bootimage.c,
 doshead.s, image.h, installboot.c, jumpboot.s, masterboot.s, mkfhead.s,
 mkfile.c, rawfs.c/h
 kernel/ : 行程相關的程式碼 (clock.c, config.c/h, debug.c/h, exception.c, glo.h, i8259.c,
 ipc.h, kernel.h, klib88.s, klib386.s, klib.s, main.c, mpx88.s, mpx386.s,
 mpx.s, priv.h, proc.c/h, protect.c/h, proto.h, sconst.h, start.c, system.c,
 table.c, type.h, utility.c,
 system/ : do_xx 的程式 , (do_abort.c, do_copy.c, dodevio.c, do_endksig.c, do_exec.c,
 do_exit.c, do_fork.c, do_getinfo.c, do_getksig.c, do_int86.c, do_iopenable.c,
 do_irqctl.c, dodo_exec.c, do_fork.c, do_kill.c, do_memset.c, do_newmap.c,
 do_nice.c, do_privctl.c, do_sdevio.c, do_segctl.c, do_setalarm.c,
 do_sigreturn.c, do_sigend.c, do_times.c, do_trace.c, do_umap.c,
 do_unused.c, do_vcopy.c, do_vdevio.c)

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (2)
 servers/ : 訊息傳遞相關的程式碼 (No file)
 ds/ : Data Store Server, (main.c, store.c/h, glo.h, inc.h, proto.h)
 fs/ : File System, (buf.h, cache.c, cache2.c, cdprobe.c, device.c, dmap.c, file.h,
 filedes.c, fproc.h, fs.h, glo.h, inode.c/h, link.c, lock.c/h, main.c,
 misc.c, mount.c, open.c, param.h, path.c, pipe.c, protect.c, proto.h,
 read.c, select.c/h, stadir.c, super.c/h, table.c, time.c, timers.c,
 type.h, utility.c, write.c)
 inet/ : Networking, (buf.c, clock.c, inet.c, inet_config.c, mnx_eth.c, mq.c, qp.c,
 sha2.c, sr.c, stacktrace.c, version.c)
 generic/: 網路通用程式 , *arp.c/h, assert.h, buf.h, clock.h, eth.c/h, eth_int.h, event.c/h,
 icmp.c/h, icmp_lib.h, io.c/h, ip.c/h, ip_eth.c/h, ip_int.h, ip_ioctl.c/h,
 ip_lib.c, ip_ps.c, ip_read.c, ip_write.c, ipr.c/h, psip.c/h, rand256.c/h,
 sr.h, tcp.c/h, tcp_int.h, tcp_lib.c, tcp_recv.c, tcp_send.c, type.h, udp.c,
 udp.h, udp_int.h)
 minix3/ : 只有 queryparam.c, .h

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (3)
 init/ : 只有 init.c , 是所有 Process 的 Father Process.
 is/ : information server, 除錯資訊的 dump.(dump.c, dmp_ds.c, dmp_fs.c, dmp_kernel.c,
 dmp_pm.c, dmp_rs.c, glo.h, inc.h, is.h, main.c, proto.h)
 pm/ : Process Management, 包含 (alloc.c, break.c, const.h, exec.c, forkexit.c, getset.c,
 glo.h, main.c, misc.c, mproc.h, param.h, pm.h, proto.h, signal.c, table.c,
 time.c, timers.c,trace.c, type.h, utility.c
 rs/ : Reincarnation( 輪迴轉世 ) Server, (inc.h, main.c, manager.c/h, proto.h, service.c)
 sm/ : System Process Manager, ( 沒有 *.c 只有一個 makefile)

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (4)
 drivers/ : IO 驅動程式 (drivers.h)
 at_wini/ : driver for the IBM-AT winchester controller.
 bios_wini/: hard disk driver that uses the ROM BIOS.
 cmos/ : access the CMOS chip to get or set the system time.
 dp8390/ : Ethernet device driver for NS dp8390 based ethernet cards. (dp8390.c, ne2000.c, rtl9029.c, wdeth.c)
 dpeth/ : Ethernet device driver for 3Com Etherlink (3c501) boards, 包含 3c501.c, 3c503.c,
 3c509.c, 8390.c, devio.c, dp.c, ne.c, netbuff.c, wd.c,
 floppy/ : Floppy Disk Driver, 包含 floppy.c
 fxp/ : Ethernet device driver for Intel 82557, 82558, 82559, 82550, and 82562 fast ethernet controllers.
 包含 : fxp.c ( 與裝置相關 ), mii.c ( 與裝置無關 )
 lance/ : Ethernet driver for AMD LANCE based ethernet cards. (lance.c)
 libdriver/: Device Independent Device Driver Interface. (driver.c, drvlib.c)
 libpci/ : PCI 插槽 (pci.c, pci_table.c, pci_amd.h, pci_intel.h, pci_via.h, pci.h)
 log/ : system log device (log.c, diag.c, kput.c)
 memory/ : (memory.c)
 printer/: printer driver. It is a fairly simple driver,supporting only one printer.
 Characters that are written to the driver are written to the printer without
 any changes at all.
 random/ : random number generator, (main.c, random.c, sha2.c)
 rescue/ : rescue device driver (rescue.c)
 rtl8138/ : device driver for Realtek rtl8139 based ethernet cards.
 sb16/ : driver for a DSP (Digital Sound Processor) on a SoundBlaster 16 soundcard.
 tty/ : terminal driver (tty.c, rs232.c, pty.c, keyboard.c, console.c, vidcopy.c)

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (5)
 tools/ : 工具軟體 (Makefile, mkboot, tell_config)
 include/ : *.h 的表頭檔 (a.out.h, alloca.h, ansi.h, assert.h, configfile.h, ctype.h, courses.h,
 dirent.h, env.h, errno.h, fcntl.h, float.h, grp.h, inttype.h, lib.h, libgen.h,
 libutil.h, limits.h, locale.h, math.h, mathconst.h, netdb.h, pwd.h, regex.h,
 regexp.h, setjmp.h, sgtty.h, signal.h, stdarg.h, stddef.h, stdint.h, stdio.h,
 stdlib.h, string.h, tar.h, termcap.h, termios.h, time.h, timers.h, tools.h, ttyent.h,
 unistd.h, utime.h, utmp.h)
 arpa/ : inet.h
 ibm/ : bios.h, cmos.h, cpu.h, diskparm.h, int86.h, interrupt.h, memory.h, partition.h,
 portio.h, ports.h
 minix/ : bitmap.h, callnr.h, cdrom.h, com.h, config.h, const.h, devio.h, dl_eth.h, dmap.h,
 fslib.h, ioctl.h, ipc.h, jmp_buf.h, keymap.h, minlib.h, partition.h, paths.h,
 sound.h, swap.h, sys_config.h, syslib.h, sysutil.h, type.h, u64.h,

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MINIX 的原始檔列表 (6)
 net/ : hton.h, if.h, ioctl.h, netlib.h
 gen/ : arp_io.h, dhcp.h, eth_hdr.h, eth_io.h, ether.h, icmp.h, icmp_hdr.h, if_ether.h,
 in.h, inet.h, ip_hdr.h, ip_io.h, nameser.h, netdb.h, oneCsum.h, psip_hdr.h,
 psip_io.h, resolv.h, rip.h, route.h, socket.h, tcp.h, tcp_hdr.h, tcp_io.h, udp.h,
 udp_hdr.h, udp_io.h, vjhc.h
 netinet/ : in.h, tcp.h
 sys/ : asynchio.h, dir.y, file.h, ioc_cmos.h, ioc_disk.h, ioc_file.h, ioc_memory.h,
 ioc_scsi.h, ioc_sound.h, ioc_tape.h, ioc_tty.h, ioctl.h, mtio.h, param.h, ptrace.h,
 resource.h, select.h, sigcontext.h, socket.h, stat.h, statfs.h, svrctl.h, time.h,
 types.h, uio.h, un.h, utsname.h, wait.h

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2.6.2. Compiling and Running MINIX 3
 Rebuild MINIX Operating System
 cd /usr/src/tools/
 make

 Make Bootable image


 su
 make clean
 time make image

 Make bootable floppy


 make fdboot
 type fd0 when you are asked to complete the path.

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Memory Layout

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2.6.3. The Common Header Files

0~ 6200 行都是 Header File


不太重要,可先忽略,看內容時
再回頭參考

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Data Type Size

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2.6.4. The MINIX 3 Header Files

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Seven Message Type used
in MINIX

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2.6.5. Process Data Structures and
Header Files
 Discriptor table
 Define how system resources are used and prevent process from accessing
memory assigend to other processes.

 GDT : Global Descriptor Table

 LDT : Local Descriptor Table

 IDT : Interrupt Descriptor Table

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Privilege Table

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2.6.6. Bootstrapping MINIX 3
 Boot Process : SEC 2.6, page 155.

 When the system is started, the hardware (actually, a program in ROM) reads the
first sector of the boot disk, copies it to a fixed location in memory, and executes
the code found there.

 On an unpartitioned MINIX3 diskette, the first sector is a bootblock which loads


the boot program, as in Fig. 2-36(a).

 Hard disk are partitioned, and the program on the first sector (called master boot
on MINIX sytems) first relocates itself to a different memory region, the reads the
partition table, loaded with it from the first sector. Then it load and executes the
first sector of the active partition, as shown in Fig. 2-36(b).

 Boot block : The first sector (512 byte).

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Disk Structure for
Bootstrapping

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Making boot program
 The MINIX 3 boot sector is modified at the time it is written to the
disk by a special program called installboot which writes the boot
sector and patches into it the disk address of a file named boot on
its partition or subpartition

 In MINIX 3, the standard location for the boot program is in a


directory of the same name, that is, /boot/boot. But it could be
anywhere – the patching of the boot sector just mentioned locates
the disk sectors from which it is to be loaded. This is necessary
because previous to loading boot there is no way to use directory
and filenames to find a file.

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Boot Parameters

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Reference for MINIX booter
 Boot Sequence Overview
 http://www.os-forum.com/minix/boot/bootsequence.php

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2.6.7. System Initialization

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8088 or 80386 ?

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2.6.8. Interrupt Handling in MINIX

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Interrupt V.S. System Call

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8259 Interrupt Controller

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System Startup - Restart

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2.6.9. Interprocess Communication
in MINIX 3

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2.6.10. Scheduling in MINIX 3

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Process Queue

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2.6.11. Hardware-Dependent Kernel
Support

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2.6.12. Utilities and the Kernel
Library

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The format of an Intel
Segment Descriptor

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2.7. The System Task in
MINIX 3
 2.7.1. Overview of the System Task
 2.7.2. Implementation of the System Task

 2.7.3. Implementation of the System


Library

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2.7.1. Overview of the
System Task

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Message types accepted by
the system task. (1)

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Message types accepted by
the system task. (2)

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2.7.2. Implementation of the
System Task

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2.7.3. Implementation of the
System Library

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How many message
passing per read required ?

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2.8. The Clock Task in
MINIX 3
 2.8.1. Clock Hardware
 2.8.2. Clock Software

 2.8.3. Overview of the Clock Driver in


MINIX 3
 2.8.4. Implementation of the Clock Driver
in MINIX 3

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2.8.1. Clock Hardware

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2.8.2. Clock Software

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2.8.3. Overview of the Clock Driver
in MINIX 3
 The Clock Task
 The Clock Interrupt Handler

 Watchdog Timers

 Millisecond Timing

 Summary of Clock Services

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The Clock Task

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The Clock Interrupt Handler

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Watchdog Timers

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Millisecond Timing

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Summary of Clock Services

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2.8.4. Implementation of the Clock
Driver in MINIX 3

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