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# Network Functions

## Synthesis of DPI Functions

RC DPI Synthesis
Most general realization is F I or F II

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RC DPI Synthesis

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RC DPI Synthesis
Why R and C0?
At s=, all Capacitors will be shorted
making the impedance equal to R
i.e. Z()= R
At s=0 (origin)
1
Z(0)
sC 0
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s 0
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RC DPI Synthesis

## An analytical expression for this most

general RC network can be written as
Ri
1
Z(s) R

C 0 s i 1 sR i C i
1 Ci
1
Z(s) R

C 0s i s 1 R i Ci
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RC DPI Synthesis

## Most General form RC

function can be written as

impedance

K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i
One property that is obvious now, its
pole must lie only on the negative real
axis including origin.
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RC DPI Synthesis

## K is not a residue. It is constant at s=.

It will never have a pole at infinity.
At s= , Z(s)= Constant or Zero.
At s=0, Z(s) has a pole or constant value.
Ki and K0 are residues and they are
positive and real.
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RC DPI Synthesis

## What will be the location of the zeros?

To answer this question we can look at
the poles of Y(s) of an RC DPI Function
Most general from of Y(s) for a RC DPI
can be written using Foster II form

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RC DPI Synthesis

1
1
YRC (s)
Cs
R0
i R i 1 sC i
sC i
1
YRC (s)
Cs
R0
i sC i R i 1

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RC DPI Synthesis

s Ri
1
YRC (s)
Cs
R0
i s 1 Ci R i
'
sK
i
YRC (s) K '0 K ' s
'
s

i
i

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RC DPI Synthesis
YRC (s) K '0 K ' s
i

sK i'
s i'

K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i
YRC(s)

ZRC(s)

Pole at s=
No pole at s=
No pole at origin Pole at origin
Ki is not a
Ki is a residue
residue
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RC DPI Synthesis
YRC (s) K '0 K ' s
i

sK i'
s i'

K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i

## Can you find any function for which

Ki is a residue?
Yes. YRC(s)/s will have Ki as its
residue.
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RC DPI Synthesis
YRC (s) K '0 K ' s
i

sK i'
s i'

K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i
YRC(s)

ZRC(s)

## Poles on -ve real Poles on -ve real

axis
axis
Poles & zeros of RC DPIs must lie
only on the -ve real axis.
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Properties of RC DPIs
Poles & zeros of RC DPIs lie only on
the -ve real axis.
YRC (s)

Z RC (s)
are form
s
equivalent
That means residues of ZRC(s) and
YRC(s)/s are real and positive
Residues of YRC(s) are real and negative.

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Properties of RC DPIs
K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i

K0
Ki
Z RC () K

i i

dZ RC ()
K0
Ki
2
2
d

i i
dZ RC ()
K0
Ki
2
0
2
d

i i
dYRC ()
0
d
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Properties of RC DPIs
dZ RC ()
0
d

s=0
Pole at origin
Constant=K+Ki/
i

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Constant=K
s=

Zero

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Properties of RC DPIs
K0
Ki
Z RC (s) K

s
i s i
Re al part of Z RC ( j) K
i

K i i

## Min. value of Re al part of Z RC ( j) K

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Properties of RC DPIs
dZ RC ()
0
d

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s=0
s=
Constant=ZRC(0
Constant=ZRC()
)

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Properties of RC DPIs
dZ RC ()
0
d

s=0
s=
Constant=ZRC(0
Constant=ZRC()
)

## Poles & zeros of ZRC(s) must

alternate on the -ve real axis.
First critical frequency has to be a
pole.
Last critical frequency must be a
zero.

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Properties of RC DPIs
Poles & zeros of YRC(s) must
alternate on the -ve real axis.
First critical frequency has to be a
zero.
Last critical frequency must be a
pole.

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Examples
(s 1)(s 4)(s 8)
s(s 2)(s 6)

(s 2)(s 4)
(s 1)(s 6)

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(s 1)(s 8)
(s 2)(s 6)
s(s 2)
(s 1)(s 6)

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Synthesis of RC DPIs
3(s 2)(s 4)
Z RC (s)
s(s 3)
8 K
Z RC (s) 3
s s3
8
1
Z RC (s) 3
s s3

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Synthesis of RC DPIs
Foster I PFE of ZRC(s)
Foster II PFE of YRC(s)

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Cauer I Synthesis
For ZRC(s), there is no pole at infinity.
So first remove the constant value (min.), then
remaining Y1RC(s) will have a pole at infinity. We can
remove that pole.
Then remaining Z2RC(s) will have a constant value at
infinity.
This will continue till the functions is completely
factorized using CFE starting from highest powers of s.

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Cauer II Synthesis
For YRC(s), there is no pole at origin.
So first remove the constant value (min.), then
remaining Z1RC(s) will have a pole at infinity. We can
remove that pole.
Then remaining Y2RC(s) will have a constant value at
origin.
This will continue till the functions is completely
factorized using CFE starting from lowest powers of s.

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Synthesis of RC DPIs
(s 1)(s 3)
s 2 (s 6)
(s 1)(s 3)
YRC (s)
s 2 (s 6)
Realize this in F I, F II, C I and C II

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