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eleventh

organizational
ior

editi
on

behav

stephen p. robbins

Chapter One

What Is Organizational
Behavior
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H
2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved.

E D I T I O N

W W W . P R E N H AL L . C O M / R O B B I N S

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

After studying this chapter,


you should be able to:
1. Define organizational behavior (OB).
2. Describe what managers do.
3. Explain the value of the systematic study of
OB.
4. List the major challenges and opportunities for
managers to use OB concepts.
5. Identify the contributions made by major
behavioral science disciplines to OB.

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13

O B J E C T I V E S (contd)
LEARNING

After studying this chapter,


you should be able to:
6. Describe why managers require a knowledge
of OB.
7. Explain the need for a contingency approach
to the study of OB.
8. Identify the three levels of analysis in this
books OB model.

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What
What Managers
Managers Do
Do
Managers (or administrators)
Individuals who achieve goals through other
people.
Managerial
ManagerialActivities
Activities
Make
Makedecisions
decisions
Allocate
Allocateresources
resources
Direct
Directactivities
activitiesof
ofothers
others
to
toattain
attaingoals
goals

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15

Where
Where Managers
Managers Work
Work
Organization
A consciously coordinated social
unit, composed of two or more
people, that functions on a
relatively continuous basis to
achieve a common goal or set of
goals.

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Management
Management Functions
Functions

Planning
Planning

Organizing
Organizing

Management
Management
Functions
Functions
Controlling
Controlling

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Leading
Leading

17

Management
Management Functions
Functions (contd)
(contd)
Planning
A process that includes defining
goals, establishing strategy, and
developing plans to coordinate
activities.

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Management
Management Functions
Functions (contd)
(contd)
Organizing
Determining what tasks are to be
done, who is to do them, how the
tasks are to be grouped, who reports
to whom, and where decisions are to
be made.

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19

Management
Management Functions
Functions (contd)
(contd)
Leading
A function that includes motivating
employees, directing others,
selecting the most effective
communication channels, and
resolving conflicts.

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110

Management
Management Functions
Functions (contd)
(contd)
Controlling
Monitoring activities to ensure they are
being accomplished as planned and
correcting any significant deviations.

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111

Mintzbergs
Mintzbergs Managerial
Managerial Roles
Roles

Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright 1973
by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 11
E X H I B I T 11
112

Mintzbergs
Mintzbergs Managerial
Managerial Roles
Roles (contd)
(contd)

Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright 1973
by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 11 (contd)
E X H I B I T 11 (contd)
113

Mintzbergs
Mintzbergs Managerial
Managerial Roles
Roles (contd)
(contd)

Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright 1973
by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 11 (contd)
E X H I B I T 11 (contd)
114

Management
Management Skills
Skills
Technical skills
The ability to apply specialized
knowledge or expertise.

Human skills
The ability to work with,
understand, and motivate other
people, both individually and in
groups.

Conceptual Skills
The mental ability to analyze and
diagnose complex situations.

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115

Enter
Enter Organizational
Organizational Behavior
Behavior
Organizational behavior
(OB)
A field of study that
investigates the impact
that individuals, groups,
and structure have on
behavior within
organizations, for the
purpose of applying such
knowledge toward
improving an
organizations
effectiveness.
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Toward
Towardan
anOB
OBDiscipline
Discipline

E X H I B I T 13
E X H I B I T 13
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Contributing
Contributing Disciplines
Disciplines to
to the
the OB
OB Field
Field
Psychology
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes
change the behavior of humans and other animals.

E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
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Contributing
Contributing Disciplines
Disciplines to
to the
the OB
OB Field
Field (contd)
(contd)
Sociology
The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.

E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
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Contributing
Contributing Disciplines
Disciplines to
to the
the OB
OB Field
Field (contd)
(contd)
Social Psychology
An area within psychology that blends concepts from
psychology and sociology and that focuses on the
influence of people on one another.

E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
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Contributing
Contributing Disciplines
Disciplines to
to the
the OB
OB Field
Field (contd)
(contd)
Anthropology
The study of societies to learn about human beings
and their activities.

E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
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121

Contributing
Contributing Disciplines
Disciplines to
to the
the OB
OB Field
Field (contd)
(contd)
Political Science
The study of the behavior of individuals and
groups within a political environment.

E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
E X H I B I T 13 (contd)
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Source: Drawing by Handelsman in


The New Yorker, Copyright 1986
by the New Yorker Magazine.
Reprinted by permission.

E X H I B I T 14
E X H I B I T 14
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123

Challenges
Challenges and
and Opportunities
Opportunities for
for OB
OB
Responding to Globalization

Increased foreign assignments


Working with people from different cultures
Coping with anti-capitalism backlash
Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with
low-cost labor

Managing Workforce Diversity


Embracing diversity
Changing U.S. demographics
Implications for managers
Recognizing and responding to differences

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124

Major
Major Workforce
Workforce Diversity
Diversity Categories
Categories

Gender
Gender

National
National
Origin
Origin

Disability
Disability
Age
Age

Non-Christian
Non-Christian

Race
Race
Domestic
Domestic
Partners
Partners

E X H I B I T 15
E X H I B I T 15
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125

Challenges
Challenges and
and Opportunities
Opportunities for
for OB
OB (contd)
(contd)
Improving Quality and Productivity
Quality management (QM)
Process reengineering

Responding to the Labor Shortage


Changing work force demographics
Fewer skilled laborers
Early retirements and older workers

Improving Customer Service


Increased expectation of service quality
Customer-responsive cultures

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126

What
What Is
Is Quality
Quality Management?
Management?
1. Intense focus on the customer.
2. Concern for continuous improvement.
3. Improvement in the quality of everything
the organization does.
4. Accurate measurement.
5. Empowerment of employees.

E X H I B I T 16
E X H I B I T 16
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127

Improving
Improving Quality
Quality and
and Productivity
Productivity
Quality management (QM)
The constant attainment of customer
satisfaction through the continuous
improvement of all organizational processes.
Requires employees to rethink what they do and
become more involved in workplace decisions.

Process reengineering
Asks managers to reconsider how work would be
done and their organization structured if they
were starting over.
Instead of making incremental changes in
processes, reengineering involves evaluating
every process in terms of its contribution.
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Challenges
Challenges and
and Opportunity
Opportunity for
for OB
OB (contd)
(contd)
Improving People Skills
Empowering People
Stimulating Innovation and Change
Coping with Temporariness
Working in Networked Organizations
Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts
Improving Ethical Behavior

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Basic
Basic OB
OB Model,
Model, Stage
Stage II
Model
An abstraction of reality.
A simplified
representation of some
real-world phenomenon.

E X H I B I T 17
E X H I B I T 17
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The
The Dependent
Dependent Variables
Variables
Dependent variable
A response that is affected by an independent
variable.

x
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131

The
The Dependent
Dependent Variables
Variables (contd)
(contd)
Productivity
A performance measure that
includes effectiveness and
efficiency.
Effectiveness
Achievement of goals.
Efficiency
The ratio of effective
output to the input
required to achieve it.
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The
The Dependent
Dependent Variables
Variables (contd)
(contd)

Absenteeism
The failure to report to
work.

Turnover
The voluntary and
involuntary permanent
withdrawal from an
organization.
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The
The Dependent
Dependent Variables
Variables (contd)
(contd)
Organizational citizenship
behavior (OCB)
Discretionary behavior that is
not part of an employees
formal job requirements, but
that nevertheless promotes the
effective functioning of the
organization.

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The
The Dependent
Dependent Variables
Variables (contd)
(contd)
Job satisfaction
A general attitude toward ones job, the
difference between the amount of reward
workers receive and the amount they believe
they should receive.

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The
The Independent
Independent Variables
Variables
Independent variable
The presumed cause of some change in the
dependent variable.
Independent
Independent
Variables
Variables

Individual-Level
Individual-Level
Variables
Variables

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Group-Level
Group-Level
Variables
Variables

Organization
Organization
System-Level
System-Level
Variables
Variables
136

Basic
BasicOB
OB
Model,
Model,
Stage
StageIIII

E X H I B I T 18
E X H I B I T 18
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