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Effective Communication

for Business
Human Beings Create the
Symbols of Communication, and
Then They Cannot Understand the
Symbols They Create.
Anonymous
By Cosimo Cannata, I.T.C.G. Piazza Armerina, a.s. 2009-2010

Types of Communication

Formal and informal


Upward, downward, and
horizontal
Spoken and written
Electronic

Business
Communication
Developing excellent

communication skills is
absolutely essential to
effective leadership.
The leader must be able
to share knowledge and
ideas to transmit a sense
of urgency and
enthusiasm to others.

Objectives

Define and give examples of


types of communication.
Describe the six functions of
nonverbal communication.
Describe and explain the role
of the eight types of
nonverbal symbols.
Differentiate between formal
and informal communication

Basic Communication Model

Sender

Message

Feedback

Receiver

The sender encodes the message and selects a


channel. The receiver decodes the message and
uses feedback to respond.

Communication Processes

Communication is the exchange of


thoughts, messages, or information, by
speech, signals, writing, or behaviour
between a sender and a receiver.

Types of Communication

Formal and informal


Upward, downward, and
horizontal
Spoken and written
Electronic
Non Verbal

Types of Communication

Formal - the official


communication that travels
through the structured (formal)
organization.
Informal (grapevine) - rumours,
statements, or reports whose truth
any known authority cannot verify
and which may not regard the
functioning of the organization.

Types of Communication

Upward communication - is the flow of


communication from managers to
managers.
Downward communication - is the flow of
communication from managers to
managers or from upper management to
middle management or lower
management.
Horizontal communication - is the flow of
communication moving laterally or at the
same level in the organization.

The Communication Processes

Feedback - a verbal or nonverbal response


by a receiver to the senders message.
Encoding - selecting words and their order
for a message by a sender.
Decoding - the translation of a message by
a receiver.
Noise - literally or figuratively, anything that
interferes with a message.
Message channel - the conduit or medium
that will carry a message from the sender
to the receiver.

Thee Communication Processes

MESSAGE

NOISE

SENDER

RECEIVER

FEEDBACK

Message Channel

Face-to-face
Face-to-group
Telephone
Written
Third party

Communication
Through Technology
E-mails
Cell phones
Video conferencing
AIM
Blogging
Internet (MySpace, Facebook,

and Google)
Faxing
Text messages

What Are Words Really Like?

Two communication rules:


Dont assume/pretend that everyone
knows what you are talking about.
Dont assume/pretend that you know
what others are talking about without
asking them questions to make certain.

Functions of Nonverbal
Communication

Accent- punctuating or drawing


attention to a verbal message.
Complement- expressions or
gestures that support, but could
not replace a verbal message.
Contradict-expressions or
gestures that convey a meaning
opposite that of a verbal
message.

Use of various signs


in non verbal communication

Functions of Nonverbal
Communication

Regulate- expressions or
gestures that control the pace or
flow of communication.
Repeat- a gesture or expression
that can be used alone to send
the same meaning as a verbal
message.
Substitute- a nonverbal cue that
replaces a verbal message.

Types of Nonverbal Symbols

The eyes
The face and head
Gestures
Touch
Posture
Territory
Walking
Status symbols

Gestures and Postures


Positive Gestures
Open Palms
Eye-to-eye
confrontation
Smile
Equal Handshake
Postures
Standing position
Walking style
Hand Movements

Summary

Definition of nonverbal
communication.
Describe the six functions of
nonverbal communication.
Describe and explain the role of
the eight types of nonverbal
symbols.
Differentiate between formal and
informal communication.

Objectives

Identify and describe 14 barriers


to communication.
Explain the importance of
listening and identify methods to
improve listening.
Describe methods to break
down communication barriers.

Barriers to Effective
Communication

Lying
Facial indicators
General indicators
Perceptions
Over-eagerness to respond
Closed words
Judging
Credibility gap
Noise

Barriers to Effective
Communication

Wasting the thought-speech


differential (Perdita rapporto)
Emotions
Snap judgments (giudizi
immediati)
Attacking the individual
Rank
Gatekeepers
Poor listening

Importance of
Listening

Time.
Good relationship.
Prevent misunderstanding and
rumors.
People perform better.
Prevents complaints from
exploding.
Good decision making.
Prevents haste conclusions.
Requires full attention.

Developing Listening Skills

Listening responses.
Nod - nodding the head slightly and waiting.
Pause - looking at the speaker, but without
doing or saying anything.
Casual remark - I see, uh-huh, or is that
so?
Echo - repeating the last few words the
speaker said.
Mirror - showing you understand by
reflecting what has just been said: you feel
that.
Phrasing questions.
Open.
Closed.

Break Down
Communication Barriers

Encourage upward communication.


Have an open-door policy.
Use face-to-face communication when
possible.
Avoid credibility gaps.
Write for understanding.
Watch your timing.
Be sensitive to needs and feelings of
others.
Identify and manager conflict.

The Four Cs of Written


Communication

Complete
Concise
Correct
Conversational

Dos of Listening

Eliminate distractions by holding


telephone calls and choosing a quiet
place to talk.
Allow adequate time for discussion.
Take note of nonverbal cues.
When you are unsure of what was
said, restate what you think you
heard in the form of a question.

Dos of Listening

Show interest.
Express empathy.
Be silent when silence is needed.
When you think that something is
missing, ask simple, direct questions
to get the necessary information.

Dos of Listening

Argue.
Interrupt.
Engage in other activities.
Pass judgment too quickly.
Jump to conclusions.
Let the other persons emotions
act too directly on your own.

Summary

Identify and describe 14 barriers


to communication.
Explain the importance of
listening and identify methods to
improve listening.
Describe methods to break
down communication barriers.

Objectives

Diagram and explain the basic


communication model.
List and explain the five
message channels.
List and explain components of
a message and the contribution
each makes to the total
message.

What Are Words Really Like?

Words have regional and international


meaning.
Words develop new meaning.
Double-speaking.
The development of new words.
Tone affects meaning.

Summary

Diagram and explain the basic communication


model.
The five message channels.
Face-to-face.
Face-to-group.
Telephone.
Written.
Third party.
The components of a message and the contribution
each makes to the total message.
Nonverbal.
Tonal.
Verbal.