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CE 579: STRUCTRAL STABILITY AND DESIGN

Amit H. Varma
Assistant Professor
School of Civil Engineering
Purdue University
Ph. No. (765) 496 3419
Email: ahvarma@purdue.edu
Office hours: M-W-F 9:00-11:30 a.m.

Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability


OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

Methods of stability analyses

Examples small deflection analyses

Examples large deflection analyses

Examples imperfect systems

Design of steel structures

STABILITY DEFINITION

Change in geometry of a structure or structural component


under compression resulting in loss of ability to resist loading
is defined as instability in the book.

Instability can lead to catastrophic failure must be accounted


in design. Instability is a strength-related limit state.

Why did we define instability instead of stability? Seem strange!

Stability is not easy to define.

Every structure is in equilibrium static or dynamic. If it is not in


equilibrium, the body will be in motion or a mechanism.
A mechanism cannot resist loads and is of no use to the civil
engineer.
Stability qualifies the state of equilibrium of a structure. Whether it
is in stable or unstable equilibrium.

STABILITY DEFINITION

Structure is in stable equilibrium when small perturbations do


not cause large movements like a mechanism. Structure
vibrates about it equilibrium position.

Structure is in unstable equilibrium when small perturbations


produce large movements and the structure never returns to
its original equilibrium position.

Structure is in neutral equilibrium when we cant decide whether


it is in stable or unstable equilibrium. Small perturbation cause
large movements but the structure can be brought back to its
original equilibrium position with no work.

Thus, stability talks about the equilibrium state of the structure.

The definition of stability had nothing to do with a change in the


geometry of the structure under compression seems strange!

STABILITY DEFINITION

BUCKLING Vs. STABILITY

Change in geometry of structure under compression that


results in its ability to resist loads called instability.

Not true this is called buckling.

Buckling is a phenomenon that can occur for structures under


compressive loads.

The structure deforms and is in stable equilibrium in state-1.


As the load increases, the structure suddenly changes to
deformation state-2 at some critical load Pcr.
The structure buckles from state-1 to state-2, where state-2 is
orthogonal (has nothing to do, or independent) with state-1.

What has buckling to do with stability?

The question is - Is the equilibrium in state-2 stable or unstable?


Usually, state-2 after buckling is either neutral or unstable
equilibrium

BUCKLING

P<Pcr

P=Pcr

P>Pcr

BUCKLING Vs. STABILITY

Thus, there are two topics we will be interested in this course

Buckling Sudden change in deformation from state-1 to state-2


Stability of equilibrium As the loads acting on the structure are
increased, when does the equilibrium state become unstable?
The equilibrium state becomes unstable due to:

Large deformations of the structure


Inelasticity of the structural materials

We will look at both of these topics for

Columns
Beams
Beam-Columns
Structural Frames

TYPES OF INSTABILITY
Structure subjected to compressive forces can undergo:
1.

Buckling bifurcation of equilibrium from deformation state-1 to


state-2.

2.

Failure due to instability of equilibrium state-1 due to large


deformations or material inelasticity

Bifurcation buckling occurs for columns, beams, and symmetric


frames under gravity loads only

Elastic instability occurs for beam-columns, and frames subjected


to gravity and lateral loads.
Inelastic instability can occur for all members and the frame.

We will study all of this in this course because we dont want


our designed structure to buckle or fail by instability both of
which are strength limit states.

TYPES OF INSTABILITY
BIFURCATION BUCKLING

Member or structure subjected to loads. As the load is


increased, it reaches a critical value where:

The deformation changes suddenly from state-1 to state-2.


And, the equilibrium load-deformation path bifurcates.

Critical buckling load when the load-deformation path bifurcates

Primary load-deformation path before buckling


Secondary load-deformation path post buckling
Is the post-buckling path stable or unstable?

SYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

Post-buckling load-deform. paths are symmetric about load axis.

If the load capacity increases after buckling then stable symmetric


bifurcation.
If the load capacity decreases after buckling then unstable
symmetric bifurcation.

ASYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

Post-buckling behavior that is asymmetric about load axis.

INSTABILITY FAILURE

There is no bifurcation of the load-deformation path. The


deformation stays in state-1 throughout

The structure stiffness decreases as the loads are increased.


The change is stiffness is due to large deformations and / or
material inelasticity.

The structure stiffness decreases to zero and becomes negative.


The load capacity is reached when the stiffness becomes zero.
Neutral equilibrium when stiffness becomes zero and unstable
equilibrium when stiffness is negative.
Structural stability failure when stiffness becomes negative.

INSTABILITY FAILURE

FAILURE OF BEAM-COLUMNS
P

K=0

K<0

P
No bifurcation.
Instability due to material
and geometric nonlinearity

INSTABILITY FAILURE

Snap-through buckling
P

Snap-through

INSTABILITY FAILURE

Shell Buckling failure very sensitive to imperfections

Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability


OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

Methods of stability analyses

Examples small deflection analyses

Examples large deflection analyses

Examples imperfect systems

Design of steel structures

METHODS OF STABILITY ANALYSES

Bifurcation approach consists of writing the equation of


equilibrium and solving it to determine the onset of buckling.

Energy approach consists of writing the equation expressing


the complete potential energy of the system. Analyzing this total
potential energy to establish equilibrium and examine stability of
the equilibrium state.

Dynamic approach consists of writing the equation of dynamic


equilibrium of the system. Solving the equation to determine the
natural frequency () of the system. Instability corresponds to
the reduction of to zero.

STABILITY ANALYSES

Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. In fact,


you can use different methods to answer different questions

The bifurcation approach is appropriate for determining the


critical buckling load for a (perfect) system subjected to loads.

The deformations are usually assumed to be small.


The system must not have any imperfections.
It cannot provide any information regarding the post-buckling loaddeformation path.

The energy approach is the best when establishing the


equilibrium equation and examining its stability

The deformations can be small or large.


The system can have imperfections.
It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large
deformations are assumed
The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the
deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of
freedom.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

The dynamic method is very powerful, but we will not use it in this class
at all.

Remember, it though when you take the course in dynamics or earthquake


engineering
In this class, you will learn that the loads acting on a structure change its
stiffness. This is significant you have not seen it before.

Ma

Ma

Mb

4E I
a
L

Mb

2E I
b
L

What happens when an axial load is acting on the beam.

The stiffness will no longer remain 4EI/L and 2EI/L.


Instead, it will decrease. The reduced stiffness will reduce the
natural frequency and period elongation.
You will see these in your dynamics and earthquake engineering
class.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

FOR ANY KIND OF BUCKLING OR STABILITY ANALYSIS


NEED TO DRAW THE FREE BODY DIAGRAM OF THE DEFORMED
STRUCTURE.

WRITE THE EQUATION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN THE


DEFORMED STATE

WRITE THE ENERGY EQUATION IN THE DEFORMED STATE TOO.

THIS IS CENTRAL TO THE TOPIC OF STABILITY ANALYSIS

NO STABILITY ANALYSIS CAN BE PERFORMED IF THE FREE


BODY DIAGRAM IS IN THE UNDEFORMED STATE

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Always a small deflection analysis

To determine Pcr buckling load

Need to assume buckled shape (state 2) to calculate

Example 1 Rigid bar supported by rotational spring


k

Rigid bar subjected to axial force P


Rotationally restrained at end

Step 1 - Assume a deformed shape that activates all possible d.o.f.


L
k

L cos

L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
L
k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

Write the equation of static equilibrium in the deformed state

k P L sin 0

k
L sin
For small deformations sin
k k
Pcr

L L
P

Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state


when P = Pcr = k/L

When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed state. The
structure will buckle into the deformed state when P=Pcr

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end
P

k
L

Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.


Draw FBD in the deformed state
L
O

P
L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state
P

L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

(k L sin ) L P L sin 0

k L2 sin
P
L sin
For small deformations sin
k L2
Pcr
kL
L

Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state

when P = Pcr = k L. When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Example 3 Three rigid bar system with two rotational springs
P
A

B
L

Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.


Draw FBD in the deformed state
P
A

1 2)

L sin 1

L
B

1 2)

L sin 2

2
L

Assume small deformations. Therefore, sin=

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state
P
1

1 2)

L sin 1

1 2)

L sin 2

1 2)

2
L

C
k(22-1)

L sin 1

L sin 2

1+(1-2)
k(21-2)

k ( 21 2 ) P L sin 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L sin 2 0

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Equations of Static Equilibrium


k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k ( 2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

k
2k PL

k
2
k

PL

1 0

2 0

Therefore either 1 and 2 are equal to zero or the determinant of the


coefficient matrix is equal to zero.
When 1 and 2 are not equal to zero that is when buckling occurs
the coefficient matrix determinant has to be equal to zero for equil.
Take a look at the matrix equation. It is of the form [A] {x}={0}. It can
also be rewritten as [K]-[I]){x}={0}

2k

L
k

k

0
1
0

1
L P

0 1 0
2k

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

This is the classical eigenvalue problem. [K]-[I]){x}={0}.


We are searching for the eigenvalues () of the stiffness matrix [K].
These eigenvalues cause the stiffness matrix to become singular

Singular stiffness matrix means that it has a zero value, which means that
the determinant of the matrix is equal to zero.

2k PL
k
0
k
2k PL
(2k PL) 2 k 2 0
(2k PL k ) (2k PL k ) 0
(3k PL) (k PL) 0
3k
k
Pcr
or
L
L

Smallest value of Pcr will govern. Therefore, Pcr=k/L

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Each eigenvalue or critical buckling load (Pcr) corresponds to a buckling shape


that can be determined as follows
Pcr=k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to determine 1 and 2
k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

Let P Pcr k

Let P Pcr k

L
k (21 2 ) k1 0

L
k (2 2 1 ) k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.
Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are
negligible. What we have found is the buckling shape not its magnitude.
P

The buckling
mode
is such that 1=2 Symmetric =buckling
modeD

A
1

L
B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Second eigenvalue was Pcr=3k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to


determine 1 and 2
k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0
Let P Pcr 3k
Let P Pcr 3k
L
L
k (21 2 ) 3k1 0
k (2 2 1 ) 3k 2 0
k1 k 2 0
k1 k 2 0
1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.
Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are
negligible. What we have found is the bucklingCshape not its magnitude.
The buckling mode is such that 1=-2 AntisymmetricL buckling mode
P

2=-1

L
B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Homework No. 1

Problem 1.1
Problem 1.3
Problem 1.4
All problems from the textbook on Stability by W.F. Chen

Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability


OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

Methods of stability analyses

Bifurcation analysis examples small deflection analyses

Energy method

Examples small deflection analyses


Examples large deflection analyses
Examples imperfect systems

Design of steel structures

ENERGY METHOD

We will currently look at the use of the energy method for an


elastic system subjected to conservative forces.
Total potential energy of the system depends on the work
done by the external forces (We) and the strain energy stored in
the system (U).
=U - We.
For the system to be in equilibrium, its total potential energy
must be stationary. That is, the first derivative of must be
equal to zero.
Investigate higher order derivatives of the total potential energy
to examine the stability of the equilibrium state, i.e., whether the
equilibrium is stable or unstable

ENERGY METHD

The energy method is the best for establishing the equilibrium


equation and examining its stability

The deformations can be small or large.


The system can have imperfections.
It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large
deformations are assumed
The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the
deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of
freedom.

ENERGY METHOD

Example 1 Rigid bar supported by rotational spring

Assume small deflection theory


k

Rigid bar subjected to axial force P


Rotationally restrained at end

Step 1 - Assume a deformed shape that activates all possible d.o.f.


L
k

L cos

L (1-cos)

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS


L
k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system


U We
1
U k2
2
We P L (1 cos )
1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2
d
k P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k P L sin 0
For small deflections; k P L 0
k
Therefore , Pcr
L

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same load
Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

At Pcr, the system will be in equilibrium in the deformed.

Examine the stability by considering further derivatives of the total


potential energy

This is a small deflection analysis. Hence will be zero.


In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the stability of
the initial state-1 (when =0)

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin k P L
d
d2
k PL
2
d

When P Pcr
When P Pcr
When P Pcr

d2
d 2
d2
d 2
d2
d 2

0 Stable equilibrium
0 Unstable equilibrium
0 Not sure

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

In state-1, stable when P<Pcr, unstable when P>Pcr

No idea about state during buckling.

No idea about post-buckling equilibrium path or its stability.


P

Unstable
Indeterminate

Pcr

Stable

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Example 1 Large deflection analysis (rigid bar with rotational spring)


U We
1
U k2
L
2
We P L (1 cos )
k

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2
L cos
d
k P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k P L sin 0
k
Therefore ,
P
for equilibrium
L sin
The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

P
L sin

L (1-cos)

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Large deflection analysis

See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below


The load carrying capacity increases after buckling at Pcr
Pcr is where 0

k
for equilibrium
L sin
P

Pcr sin
P

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Large deflection analysis Examine the stability of equilibrium using


higher order derivatives of

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
k
But , P
L sin
d2
k

L cos
L sin
d 2
d2

k
(
1

)
tan
d 2
d2

0 Always (i.e., all values of )


d 2
Always STABLE
d2
But ,
0 for 0
2
d

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

At =0, the second derivative of =0. Therefore, inconclusive.

Consider the Taylor series expansion of at =0

d
1 d2
1 d3
1 d4
1 dn
2
3
4



.....
n
2
3
4
n
d 0
2! d 0
3! d 0
4! d 0
n! d 0

Determine the first non-zero term of ,

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
d3
P L sin
d 3
d4
P L cos
d 4

0 0

d
0
d 0
d2
0
d 2 0

1 d4
1
4

k4 0
4
4! d 0
24

d3
P L sin 0
d 3 0
d4
P L cos PL k
d 4 0

Since the first non-zero term is > 0, the state is stable at P=Pcr and =0

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

STABL
E

STABL
E
STABL
E

ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

Consider example 1 but as a system with imperfections

The initial imperfection given by the angle 0 as shown below


0

L cos(0)

The free body diagram of the deformed system is shown below


L
k(

P
L sin

0
L cos

L (cos0-cos)

ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS


L
k(

L sin

U We
1
k ( 0 ) 2
2
We P L (cos 0 cos )
U

L cos

1
k ( 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )
2

d
k ( 0 ) P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k ( 0 ) P L sin 0
k ( 0 )
for equilibrium
L sin
The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above
Therefore ,

L (cos0-cos)

ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS


P

k ( 0 )
L sin

P 0

Pcr
sin

P relationsh ips for different values of 0 shown below :

ENERGY METHODS IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

As shown in the figure, deflection starts as soon as loads are


applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for
imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the
same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path

The magnitude of load, is influenced significantly by the


imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there

The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess.


Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be
close for an imperfect system with small imperfections

ENERGY METHODS IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

Examine the stability of the imperfect system using higher order


derivatives of
1
2

k ( 0 ) P L (cos 0 cos )

d
k ( 0 ) P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
Equilibrium path will be stable
d2
if
0
2
d
i.e., if k P L cos 0
k
i.e., if P
L cos
k ( 0 )
k
i.e., if

L sin
L cos
i.e., 0 tan

Which is always true, hence always in STABLE EQUILIBRIUM

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS


Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end
P

k
L

Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.


Draw FBD in the deformed state
L
O

P
L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS


Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system
U We
1
1
k ( L sin ) 2 k L2 2
2
2
We P L (1 cos )
U

L sin
O

1
k L2 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 P L sin 0
For small deflections; k L2 P L 0
Therefore , Pcr k L

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same
load Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

At Pcr, the system will be in equilibrium in the deformed.


Examine the stability by considering further derivatives of the
total potential energy

This is a small deflection analysis. Hence will be zero.


In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the
stability of the initial state-1 (when =0)
1
k L2 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 P L sin
d
d2
k L2 P L cos
2
d
For small deflections and 0
d
2

k
L
P L
2
d
2

When, P k L
When, P k L
When P kL

d2
0 STABLE
2
d
d2
0 UNSTABLE
d 2
d2
0 INDETERMINATE
d 2

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS


Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system
U We
1
U k ( L sin ) 2
2
We P L (1 cos )

L sin
O

1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 sin cos P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 sin cos P L sin 0
Therefore ,
P k L cos for equilibrium
The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

L cos
L (1-cos)

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Large deflection analysis

See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below


The load carrying capacity decreases after buckling at Pcr
Pcr is where 0
P k L cos
P

cos
Pcr

for equilibrium

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Large deflection analysis Examine the stability of equilibrium using


higher order derivatives of

1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 sin cos P L sin
d
d2
k L2 cos 2 P L cos
2
d
For equilibrium P k L cos
d2

d 2
d2

d 2
d2

d 2
d2

d 2

k L2 cos 2 k L2 cos 2
k L2 (cos 2 sin 2 ) k L2 cos 2
k L2 sin 2
0

ALWAYS . HENCE UNSTABLE

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

At =0, the second derivative of =0. Therefore, inconclusive.

Consider the Taylor series expansion of at =0

d
1 d2
1 d3
1 d4
1 dn
2
3
4



.....
n
2
3
4
n
d 0
2! d 0
3! d 0
4! d 0
n! d 0

Determine the first non-zero term of ,


1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos ) 0
2
d 1
k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0
d
2
d2
2

k
L
cos 2 P L cos 0
2
d
d3
2k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0
3
d

d4
2

4
k
L
cos 2 P L cos
4
d
d4
2
2
2

4
k
L

k
L

3
k
L
d 4
d4

0
4
d
UNSTABLE at 0 when buckling occurs

Since the first non-zero term is < 0, the state is unstable at P=Pcr and =

ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

UNSTABL
E

UNSTABL
E

UNSTABLE

ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS

Consider example 2 but as a system with imperfections

The initial imperfection given by the angle 0 as shown below


0

k
L cos(0)

The free body diagram of the deformed system is shown below


L

P
L sin

L sin

L cos
L (cos0-cos)

ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS


L

P
L sin

U We
1
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2
2
We P L (cos 0 cos )
U

L cos

1
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )
2

d
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin 0
sin 0
) for equilibrium
sin
The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above
Therefore ,

P k L cos (1

L sin

L (cos0-cos)

ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS


P k L cos (1

sin 0
)
sin

P
sin 0
cos (1
)
Pcr
sin

sin
dP
0 k L( sin 2 0 ) 0 sin 0 sin 3
d
sin
k L cos 3
Envelope of peak

Pmax
Pmax

loads Pmax

ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS

As shown in the figure, deflection starts as soon as loads are


applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for
imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the
same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path.

The magnitude of load, is influenced significantly by the


imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there

The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess.


Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be
close for an imperfect system with small imperfections.

However, for an unstable system the effects of imperfections


may be too large.

ENERGY METHODS IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

Examine the stability of the imperfect system using higher order


derivatives of 1 k L (sin sin ) P L (cos cos )
2

d
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin
d
d2
k L2 (cos 2 sin 0 sin ) P L cos
2
d
sin 0

For equilibrium P k L 1

sin

sin 0
d2
2
2

k
L
(cos
2

sin

sin

k
L
1

cos 2
0
2
sin
d

sin 0 cos 2
d2
2
2
2
2

k L cos sin sin 0 sin cos

sin
d 2

sin 0 cos 2
d2
2
2

k L sin sin 0 sin

sin
d 2

3
2
2
d2
2 sin sin 0 (sin cos )

kL

sin
d 2

3
d2
2 sin sin 0

kL

sin
d 2

ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS


3
d2
2 sin sin 0
kL

sin
d 2

d2
0 when P Pmax Stable
d 2
d2
0 when P Pmax Unstable
d 2

P k L cos (1
When P Pmax

sin 0
)
sin

k L cos (1

Pmax k L cos 3

and

sin 0
) k L cos 3
sin

sin 0
cos 2
sin
sin 0
1
1 sin 2
sin
1

sin 0 sin
3

and

3
d2
2 sin 0 sin
k L
0
sin

d 2

When P Pmax
k L cos (1

sin 0
) k L cos 3
sin

sin 0
cos 2
sin
sin 0
1
1 sin 2
sin
1

sin 0 sin
3

and

3
d2
2 sin 0 sin
k L
0
sin

d 2

Chapter 2. Second-Order Differential Equations

This chapter focuses on deriving second-order differential


equations governing the behavior of elastic members

2.1 First order differential equations

2.2 Second-order differential equations

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

Governing the behavior of structural members

Elastic, Homogenous, and Isotropic


Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory
Equations of equilibrium in undeformed state

Consider the behavior of a beam subjected to bending and axial


forces

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

Assume tensile forces are positive and moments are positive


according to the right-hand rule

Longitudinal stress due to bending

My

P Mx

y
x
A Ix
Iy

This is true when the x-y axis system is

a centroidal and principal axis system.

y dA x dA x y dA 0
A

dA A;
A

Centroidal axis

2
x
dA I y ;
A

2
y
dA I x
A

I x and I y are principal moment of inertia

My
P Mx

y
x
A Ix
Iy

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

My
Mx
P

y
x
The corresponding strain is
A E E Ix
E Iy

If P=My=0, then

Mx
y
E Ix

Plane-sections remain plane and


perpendicular to centroidal axis before and
after bending
The measure of bending is curvature which
denotes thechange in the slope of the
tan y axis between two point dz apart
centroidal
y
For small deformations tan y y

y
Mx
y
E Ix
M x E I x y
y

and similarly M y E I y x

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

Shear Stresses due to bending

Vy
Ix

y t ds

Vx s
t x t ds
Iy O

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

Differential equations of bending

Assume principle of superposition

Treat forces and deformations in y-z and x-z


plane seperately
Both the end shears and qy act in a plane
parallel to the y-z plane through the shear
center S
dV y

q y
dz
dM x
Vy
dz
d 2M x

q y
2
dz
d 2 (E I x y )

q y
dz 2
E I x y q y

2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

Differential equations of bending


E I x y q y

1 (v)

2 3/ 2

For small deflections


y v
E I x v iv q y
Similarly E I y u iv q x
u deflection in positive x direction
v deflection in positive y direction

Fourth-order differential equations using firstorder force-deformation theory

Torsion behavior Pure and Warping Torsion

Torsion behavior uncoupled from bending behavior

Thin walled open cross-section subjected to torsional moment

This moment will cause twisting and warping of the cross-section.


The cross-section will undergo pure and warping torsion behavior.
Pure torsion will produce only shear stresses in the section
Warping torsion will produce both longitudinal and shear stresses
The internal moment produced by the pure torsion response will be
equal to Msv and the internal moment produced by the warping
torsion response will be equal to Mw.
The external moment will be equilibriated by the produced internal
moments

MZ=MSV + MW

Pure and Warping Torsion


MZ=MSV + MW
Where,

MSV = G KT

MSV = Pure or Saint Venants torsion moment

KT = J = Torsional constant =

is the angle of twist of the cross-section. It is a function of z.

and

MW = - E Iw "

IW is the warping moment of inertia of the cross-section. This is a


new cross-sectional property you may not have seen before.

MZ = G KT - E Iw " (3), differential equation of torsion

Pure Torsion Differential Equation

Lets look closely at pure or Saint Venants torsion. This occurs when
the warping of the cross-section is unrestrained or absent
dz r d
d
r
r
dz
G r
M SV r dA G r 2 dA
A

M SV G K T
where, K T J r 2 dA
A

For a circular cross-section warping is absent. For thin-walled open


cross-sections, warping will occur.

The out of plane warping deformation w can be calculated using an


equation I will not show.

Pure Torsion Stresses


The torsional shear stresses vary linearly about the center of the thin
plate

SV G r
SV max G t
sv

Warping deformations

The warping produced by pure torsion can be restrained by the:


(a) end conditions, or (b) variation in the applied torsional
moment (non-uniform moment)

The restraint to out-of-plane warping deformations will produce


longitudinal stresses (w) , and their variation along the length
will produce warping shear stresses (w) .

Warping Torsion Differential Equation

Lets take a look at an approximate derivation of the warping


torsion differential equation.

This is valid only for I and C shaped sections.


h
2
where u f flange lateral displacement

uf

M f moment in the flange


V f Shear force in the flange
E I f u f M f

borrowing d .e. of bending

E I f u f V f
MW Vf h
M W E I f u f h
MW
MW

h2
E I f

2
E I W

where I W is warping moment of inertia new sec tion property

Torsion Differential Equation Solution

Torsion differential equation MZ=MSV+MW = G KT - E IW

This differential equation is for the case of concentrated torque


G K T E I w M Z

G KT
M
Z
E IW
E IW

MZ

E IW
2

C1 C 2 cosh z C 3 sinh z

Mz z
2 E I W

Torsion differential equation for the case of distributed torque


dM Z
dz
G K T E I w iv m Z
mZ

G KT
m
iv
Z
E IW
E IW
iv 2

mz z 2
C 4 C 5 z C 6 cosh z C 7 sinh z
2 G KT

mZ
E IW

The coefficients C1 .... C6 can be obtained using end conditions

Torsion Differential Equation Solution


0

Torsionally fixed end conditions are given by

These imply that twisting and warping at the fixed end are fully
restrained. Therefore, equal to zero.

Torsionally pinned or simply-supported end conditions given by:

These imply that at the pinned end twisting is fully restrained ( =0) and
warping is unrestrained or free. Therefore, W =0 =0
Torsionally free end conditions given by = = = 0

These imply that at the free end, the section is free to warp and there
are no warping normal or shear stresses.

Results for various torsional loading conditions given in the AISC


Design Guide 9 can be obtained from my private site

Warping Torsion Stresses

Restraint to warping produces longitudinal and shear stresses


W E Wn
W t E SW
where,
Wn Normalized Unit Warping Section Pr operty
SW Warping Statical Moment Section Pr operty

The variation of these stresses over the section is defined by the


section property Wn and Sw

The variation of these stresses along the length of the beam is defined
by the derivatives of

Note that a major difference between bending and torsional behavior is

The stress variation along length for torsion is defined by derivatives of ,


which cannot be obtained using force equilibrium.
The stress variation along length for bending is defined by derivatives of v,
which can be obtained using force equilibrium (M, V diagrams).

Torsional Stresses

Torsional Stresses

Torsional Section Properties for I and C Shapes

and derivatives for concentrated torque at midspan

Summary of first order differential equations


E I x v M x
E I y u M y

(1)

G K T E I W M z

(3)

(2)

NOTES:
(1) Three uncoupled differential equations
(2) Elastic material first order force-deformation theory
(3) Small deflections only
(4) Assumes no influence of one force on other deformations
(5) Equations of equilibrium in the undeformed state.

HOMEWORK # 3

Consider the 22 ft. long simply-supported W18x65 wide flange beam


shown in Figure 1 below. It is subjected to a uniformly distributed load
of 1k/ft that is placed with an eccentricity of 3 in. with respect to the
centroid (and shear center).

At the mid-span and the end support cross-sections, calculate the


magnitude and distribution of:

Normal and shear stresses due to bending


Shear stresses due to pure torsion
Warping normal and shear stresses over the cross-section.

Provide sketches and tables of the individual normal and shear stress
distributions for each case.

Superimpose the bending and torsional stress-states to determine the


magnitude and location of maximum stresses.

HOMEWORK # 2

22 ft.
Span

3in.

W18x65

Cross-section

Chapter 2. Second-Order Differential Equations

This chapter focuses on deriving second-order differential


equations governing the behavior of elastic members

2.1 First order differential equations

2.2 Second-order differential equations

2.2 Second-Order Differential Equations

Governing the behavior of structural members

Elastic, Homogenous, and Isotropic


Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory
Equations of equilibrium in deformed state
The deformations and internal forces are no longer independent.
They must be combined to consider effects.

Consider the behavior of a member subjected to combined axial


forces and bending moments at the ends. No torsional forces
are applied explicitly because that is very rare for CE
structures.

Member model and loading conditions

Member is initially straight and prismatic.


It has a thin-walled open cross-section

Member ends are pinned and prevented


from translation.

The forces are applied only at the


member ends

These consist only of axial and bending


moment forces P, MTX, MTY, MBX, MBY

Assume elastic behavior with small


deflections

Right-hand rule for positive moments and


reactions and P assumed positive.

Member displacements (cross-sectional)

Consider the middle line of thinwalled cross-section

x and y are principal coordinates


through centroid C

Q is any point on the middle line.


It has coordinates (x, y).

Shear center S coordinates are


(xo, y0)

Shear center S displacements


are u, v, and

Member displacements (cross-sectional)

Displacements of Q are:
uQ = u + a sin
vQ = v a cos
where a is the distance from Q to S
But, sin = (y0-y) / a
cos = (x0-x) / a

Therefore, displacements of Q are:


uQ = u + (y0-y)
vQ = v (x0 x)

Displacements of centroid C are:


uc = u + (y0)
vc = v - (x0)

Internal forces second-order effects

Consider the free body diagrams of


the member in the deformed state.

Look at the deformed state in the x-z


and y-z planes in this Figure.

The internal resisting moment at a


distance z from the lower end are:
Mx = - MBX + Ry z + P vc
My = - MBY + Rx z - P uc

The end reactions Rx and Ry are:


Rx = (MTY + MBY) / L
Ry = (MTX + MBX) / L

Internal forces second-order effects

Therefore,
z
M TX M BX P v x0
L
z
M TY M BY P u y0
L

M x M BX
M y M BY

Internal forces in the deformed state


In the deformed state, the cross-section is such that the principal
coordinate systems are changed from x-y-z to the system

uc
vc

z
y

MBx
Ry

MBY

uc
vc

Rx

M +d

Mx
Rx

My

Ry

Internal forces in the deformed state

The internal forces Mx and My must be transformed to these new


axes

Since the angle is small

MMx + My

M = M y Mx
z
M TX M BX P v x0
L
z
M TY M BY P u y0
L

M x M BX
M y M BY

M M BX

z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY z M TY M BY
L
L

M M BY

z
M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX
L
L

Twisting component of internal forces

Twisting moments M are produced by the internal and external


forces

There are four components contributing to the total M


(1) Contribution from Mx and My M
(2) Contribution from axial force P M
(3) Contribution from normal stress M
(4) Contribution from end reactions Rx and Ry M

The total twisting moment M = M + M + M + M

Twisting component 1 of 4

Twisting moment due to Mx & My

M = Mx sin (du/dz) + Mysin (dv/dz)

Therefore, due to small angles, M = Mx du/dz + My dv/dz

M = Mx u + My v

Twisting component 2 of 4

The axial load P acts along the original vertical direction


In the deformed state of the member, the longitudinal axis is not
vertical. Hence P will have components producing shears.
These components will act at the centroid where P acts and will have
values as shown above assuming small angles

Twisting component 2 of 4

These shears will act at the centroid C, which is eccentric with


respect to the shear center S. Therefore, they will produce
secondary twisting.

M = P (y0 du/dz x0 dv/dz)

Therefore, M = P (y0 u x0 v)

Twisting component 3 of 4

The end reactions (shears) Rx and Ry act at the shear center S


at the ends. But, along the member ends, the shear center will
move by u, v, and .

Hence, these reactions will also have a twisting effect produced


by their eccentricity with respect to the shear center S.

M + Ry u + Rx v = 0

Therefore,

M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L

Twisting component 4 of 4

Wagners effect or contribution


complicated.
Two cross-sections that are d
apart will warp with respect to
each other.
The stress element dA will
become inclined by angle (a
d/d with respect to d axis.
Twist produced by each stress
element about S is equal to
d

dM 3 a dA a
d
d
M 3
a 2 dA

d A

Twisting component 4 of 4
Let , a 2 dA K
A

d
d
d
K
for small angles
dz

M 3 K
M 3

Twisting component 4 of 4
Let , a 2 dA K
A

d
d
d
K
for small angles
dz

M 3 K
M 3

Total Twisting Component

M = M + M + M + M
M = Mx u + My v
M = P (y0 u x0 v)
M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L
M= -K

Therefore,

MMx u + My v+ P (y0 u x0 v) (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L-K


While,
z
z

M M BX M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

M M BY

z
M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX
L
L

Total Twisting Component

M = M + M + M + M
M = Mx u + My v

M = P (y0 u x0 v)

M= -K

M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L

Therefore,
v
u
M TX M BX K
L
L
v
u
M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L

M M x u M y v P y0 u x0 v M TY M BY
M ( M x P y0 ) u ( M y P x0 ) v ( M TY

z
( M BX M TX ) P (v x0 )
L
z
( M BY M TY ) P (u y0 )
L

But , M x M BX
and , M y M BY

z
z
( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v
L
L
v
u
M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L

M ( M BX
( M TY

Internal moments about the axes

Thus, now we have the internal moments about the axes for the
deformed member cross-section.
M M BX

z
z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

z
z

MTY

P
u

P
y

MTX
M BX
M

M
TX+MBY
BX
0
BX
TY +M
BY

L
L

z
z
M ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v
L
L
v
u
( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L
M M BY

x
z

Internal Moment Deformation Relations

The internal moments M, M, and M will still produce flexural bending


about the centroidal principal axis and twisting about the shear center.

The flexural bending about the principal axes will produce


linearly varying longitudinal stresses.

The torsional moment will produce longitudinal and shear


stresses due to warping and pure torsion.

The differential equations relating moments to deformations are


still valid. Therefore,
M = - E I v ..(I = Ix)
M = E I u ..(I= Iy)
M = G KT E Iw

Internal Moment Deformation Relations


Therefore,
M E I x v M BX

z
z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

z
z

M TX

P
u

P
y

M
M

MTX
BX
0
BX
TY +MBY

TY+MBY
BX
L
L

z
M G KT E I w ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u
L
z
v
u
( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L
L
M E I y u M BY

Second-Order Differential Equations


You end up with three coupled differential equations that relate
the applied forces and moments to the deformations u, v, and .

Therefore,

E I x v P v P x0 M BY

z
z

M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX
L
L

z
z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX M
MM
+M
M BYB M BY MTY
MBYBX
+M
TYTX
TX+M
TX
B
L
L

X
Xz
E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )
L
z
v
u

v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L
L
These differential equations can be used to investigate the elastic
behavior and buckling of beams, columns, beam-columns and
also complete frames that will form a major part of this course.

Chapter 3. Structural Columns

3.1 Elastic Buckling of Columns

3.2 Elastic Buckling of Column Systems Frames

3.3 Inelastic Buckling of Columns

3.4 Column Design Provisions (U.S. and Abroad)

3.1 Elastic Buckling of Columns

Start out with the second-order differential equations derived in


Chapter 2. Substitute P=P and MTY = MBY = MTX = MBX = 0

Therefore, the second-order differential equations simplify to:


1
2
3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0
E I w (G KT K ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

This is all great, but before we proceed any further we need to


deal with Wagners effect which is a little complicated.

Wagners effect for columns


K a 2 dA
A

where,

P M y M x

E Wn
A
Ix
Iy

M P (v x0 )
M P (u y0 )
P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA
A
Ix
Iy

P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA
A
Ix
Iy

Neglecting higher order terms; K

P
a 2 dA
A A

Wagners effect for columns


But , a 2 ( x0 x ) 2 ( y0 y ) 2
a 2 dA ( x0 x) 2 ( y0 y ) 2 dA
A

a 2 dA x02 y02 x 2 y 2 2 x0 x 2 y0 y dA
A

a 2 dA x02 y02
A

dA x dA y dA 2 x x dA 2 y y dA
2

a 2 dA ( x02 y02 ) A I x I y
A

Finally ,
P
( x02 y02 ) A I x I y
A
I x I y

K P ( x02 y02 )

A

I x I y
2
2
2
Let r0 ( x0 y0 )

K P r02

Second-order differential equations for columns

Simplify to:
1
2
3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0
E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

Where

r0 x y
2

2
0

2
0

Ix I y
A

Column buckling doubly symmetric section

For a doubly symmetric section, the shear center is located at the


centroid xo= y0 = 0. Therefore, the three equations become uncoupled
1
2
3

E I x v P v 0
E I y u P u 0
E I w ( P r02 G KT ) 0

Take two derivatives of the first two equations and one more derivative
of the third equation.
1

E I x v iv P v 0

E I y u iv P u 0

P
Let , Fv2
E Ix

E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) 0

P
Fu2
E Iy

2
P
r
G KT
F2 0
E Iw

Column buckling doubly symmetric section


1

v iv Fv2 v 0

u iv Fu2 u 0

iv F2 0

All three equations are similar and of the fourth order. The
solution will be of the form C1 sin z + C2 cos z + C3 z + C4

Need four boundary conditions to evaluate the constant C1..C4

For the simply supported case, the boundary conditions are:


u= u=0; v= v=0; = =0

Lets solve one differential equation the solution will be valid for
all three.

Column buckling doubly symmetric section


v iv Fv2 v 0
Solution is
v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
v C1 Fv2 sin Fv z C2 Fv2 cos Fv z

The coefficient matrix 0

Boundary conditions :
v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0

Fv2 sin Fv L 0
sin Fv L 0

C2 C4 0
C2 0

L L v (0) 0
L L v(0) 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4

L L v( L) 0
L L v( L) 0

C1 Fv2 sin Fv L C2 Fv2 cos Fv L

0
0
sin Fv L
Fv2 sin Fv L

1
1
cos Fv L
Fv2 cos Fv L

0
0
L
0

1
0

1
0

C 1
C 2
C
3
C 4

0
0
0

0

Fv L n
Fv

P
n

E Ix
L

n2 2
Px 2 E I x
L
Smallest value of n 1:

2 E Ix
Px
L2

Column buckling doubly symmetric section


sin Fu L 0

Similarly,
sin F L 0

Fu L n

F L n

Similarly ,

Fu

P
n

E Iy
L

n2 2
Py 2 E I y
L
Smallest value of n 1:

Summary

n2 2
1
P
E I w G KT 2
2
L

r0

2 E Iy
Py
L2

2 E Ix
Px
L2
2 E Iy
Py
L2
2 E Iw
1
P

G
K
T
2
L2

r0

P r02 G KT n

E Iw
L

Smallest value of n 1:
n2 2
1
P
E I w G KT 2
2
L

r0
1

Column buckling doubly symmetric section

Thus, for a doubly symmetric cross-section, there are three distinct


buckling loads Px, Py, and Pz.

The corresponding buckling modes are:


v = C1 sin(z/L), u =C2 sin(z/L), and = C3 sin(z/L).

These are, flexural buckling about the x and y axes and torsional
buckling about the z axis.

As you can see, the three buckling modes are uncoupled. You must
compute all three buckling load values.

The smallest of three buckling loads will govern the buckling of the
column.

Column buckling boundary conditions


Consider the case of fix-fix boundary conditions:
viv Fv2 v 0
Solution is
v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
v C1 Fv cos Fv z C2 Fv sin Fv z C3
Boundary conditions :
v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0
C2 C 4 0

The coefficient matrix 0


Fv L sin Fv L 2 cos Fv L 2 0
2 sin

L v(0) 0
L v(0) 0

C1 Fv C3 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4 L v( L ) 0
C1 Fv cos Fv L C2 Fv sin Fv L C3 L v( L) 0

0
Fv
sin Fv L
Fv cos Fv L

1
0
cos Fv L
Fv sin Fv L

0
1
L
1

1
0

1
0

C 1
C 2
C
3
C 4

0
0
0

0

Fv L
Fv L
Fv L
F
L
cos

2sin
0
v
2
2
2

Fv L
n
2
2 n
Fv
L
4 n2 2
Px
E Ix
L2
Smallest value of n 1:

Px

2 E Ix

0.5 L

2 E Ix

K L

Column Boundary Conditions

The critical buckling loads for columns with different boundary


conditions can be expressed as:
Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E I
w

K z L

1
G KT
2
r0

Where, Kx, Ky, and Kz are functions of the boundary conditions:

K=1 for simply supported boundary conditions

K=0.5 for fix-fix boundary conditions

K=0.7 for fix-simple boundary conditions

Column buckling example.

Consider a wide flange column W27 x 84. The boundary conditions are:
v=v=u=u===0 at z=0, and v=v=u=u===0 at z=L

For flexural buckling about the x-axis simply supported Kx=1.0

For flexural buckling about the y-axis fixed at both ends Ky = 0.5

For torsional buckling about the z-axis pin-fix at two ends - K z=0.7
Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E A rx 2

Kx L

2 E A ry 2

K L

2 E A

L
K
x
rx

2 E A ry

2
L rx
Ky
rx

2 E I
w
K z L

G KT

2
E Iw

G KT
2
2
r0
K L
z rx

rx2
rx2 I x I y

Column buckling example.


Px
2 E A
1
2 E
5823.066

2
2
2
PY
A Y

L L
L
Y K x
Kx

r
r
x

x rx
2
2
2
Py
2 E A (ry / rx ) E (ry / rx )
791.02

2
2
2
PY
A Y

L L
L
Y K y
Ky

r
x

rx rx

2
E Iw

A
1
2

G
K
r

T
x
2
r2 I I
PY
A Y

L
x
x
y

K
z rx

P 2 E I w
1
2

G
K
r
T x
2
PY
rx2 I x I y Y

K z

rx

P
PY

578.26
L

rx

0.2333

Column buckling example.


Flexural buckling
about y-axis

Flexural buckling
about x-axis

Yield load PY
Cannot be exceeded

Torsional buckling about


z-axis governs

Torsional buckling
about z-axis
Flexural buckling about
y-axis governs

Column buckling example.

When L is such that L/rx < 31; torsional buckling will govern

rx = 10.69 in. Therefore, L/rx = 31 L=338 in.=28 ft.

Typical column length =10 15 ft. Therefore, typical L/r x= 11.2 16.8

Therefore elastic torsional buckling will govern.

But, the predicted load is much greater than PY. Therefore, inelastic
buckling will govern.

Summary Typically must calculate all three buckling load values to


determine which one governs. However, for common steel buildings
made using wide flange sections the minor (y-axis) flexural buckling
usually governs.

In this problem, the torsional buckling governed because the end


conditions for minor axis flexural buckling were fixed. This is very
rarely achieved in common building construction.

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

Well, what if the column has only one axis of symmetry. Like the xaxis or the y-axis or so.

As shown in this figure, the y axis


is the axis of symmetry.

The shear center S will be located


on this axis.

Therefore x0= 0.

The differential equations will


simplify to:

E I x v P v 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

The first equation for flexural buckling about the x-axis (axis of
non-symmetry) becomes uncoupled.

E I x v P v 0 L L (1)
E I x v P v 0

Equations (2) and (3) are still


coupled in terms of u and .

iv

v iv Fv 2 v 0
where, Fv 2

P
E Ix

v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
Boundary conditions

sin Fv L 0

2 E Ix
Px
( K x Lx ) 2
Buckling mod v C1 sin Fv z

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

These equations will be satisfied by


the solutions of the form
u=C2 sin (z/L) and =C3 sin (z/L)

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns


E I y u P u P y0 0

L L L (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0L L L (3)
E I y u iv P u P y0 0
E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

z
z
; C3 sin
L
L
Therefore, substituting these in equations 2 and 3
Let ,

u C2 sin
4

z
z
z



E I y C2 sin
P C2 sin
P y0 C3 sin
0
L
L
L
L
L
L



4

z
z


E I w C3 sin
( P r02 G KT ) C3 sin
P
L
L
L
L

y0
L

C2 sin

z
0
L

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns


E I y P C2 P y0 C3 0
L


and E I w ( P r02 G KT ) C3 P y0 C2 0
L

2 E Iy
Let , Py
L2

and

2 E Iw
1
P

G
K
T
2
2
L

r0

Py P C2 P y0 C3 0
P P r02C3 P y0 C2 0
Py P

P y0

P y0 C 2
0
( P P ) r02 C 3

Py P

P y0

P y0

( P P ) r02

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns


( Py P)( P P) r02 P 2 y02 0
Py P P ( Py P ) P 2 r02 P 2 y02 0
P 2 (1

2
0
2
0

y
) P ( Py P ) Py P 0
r

y02
( Py P ) ( Py P ) 4 Py P (1 2 )
r0
P
y02
2 (1 2 )
r0
2

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

r0
( Py P ) ( Py P ) 2 1
( Py P ) 2

P
2
y
2 (1 02 )
r0

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )
r0
P
1

y02
( Py P ) 2
2 (1 2 )

r0

Thus, there are two roots for P


Smaller value will govern

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )
r0
P P
1

y02
( Py P ) 2
2 (1 2 )

r0

Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

The critical buckling load will the lowest of Px and the two roots
shown on the previous slide.

If the flexural torsional buckling load govern, then the buckling


mode will be C2 sin (z/L) x C3 sin (z/L)

This buckling mode will include both flexural and torsional


deformations hence flexural-torsional buckling mode.

Column Buckling Asymmetric Section

No axes of symmetry: Therefore, shear center S (xo, yo) is such that


neither xo not yo are zero.
E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

K K K K K K K K K K K (1)
K K K K K K K K K K K (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

K (3)

For simply supported boundary conditions: (u, u, v, v, , =0), the


solutions to the differential equations can be assumed to be:

u = C1sin (z/L)

v = C2 sin (z/L)

= C3 sin (z/L)

These solutions will satisfy the boundary conditions noted above

Column Buckling Asymmetric Section


Substitute the solutions into the d.e. and assume that it satisfied too:

2

z
E I x C1 sin

2

z
E I y C2 sin


z
E I w C3 cos

z
P x0 C3 sin


z
P C2 sin
L

z
P y0 C3 sin

0
0

z
2
( P r0 G KT ) C3 cos P y0
L
L

E Ix P
0


z
P C1 sin
L

P x0

P x0

0


L

E Iy P
P y0

C1

z
cos
L
L

z
P x0 C2 cos

L L

P y0

2
E I w ( P r0 G K T )

z

L
z

C2 sin

z
C3 cos

L
L
C1 sin

Column Buckling Asymmetric Section

P P
x

0
Py P

P x0

P y0

z

L
z
C2 sin

z
C3 cos

L
L

C1 sin

P x0

P y0
P P r02

where,

Px
L

Py
L

EI x

EI y

2 E Iw

1
P

G
K
T
2
2
L

r0

Either C1, C2, C3 = 0 (no buckling), or the determinant of the coefficient


matrix =0 at buckling.

Therefore, determinant of the coefficient matrix is:


y 2
x 2
2
2
o
P Px P Py P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0
ro
ro

Column Buckling Asymmetric Section


P Px P Py

y 2
x 2
2
o
P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0
r

o
ro

This is the equation for predicting buckling of a column with an


asymmetric section.

The equation is cubic in P. Hence, it can be solved to obtain three


roots Pcr1, Pcr2, Pcr3.

The smallest of the three roots will govern the buckling of the column.

The critical buckling load will always be smaller than Px, Py, and P

The buckling mode will always include all three deformations u, v, and
. Hence, it will be a flexural-torsional buckling mode.

For boundary conditions other than simply-supported, the


corresponding Px, Py, and P can be modified to include end condition
effects Kx, Ky, and K

Homework No. 4

See word file

Problem No. 1

Problem No. 2

Consider a column with doubly symmetric cross-section. The boundary conditions


for flexural buckling are simply supported at one end and fixed at the other end.
Solve the differential equation for flexural buckling for these boundary conditions
and determine the eigenvalue (buckling load) and the eigenmode (buckling shape).
Plot the eigenmode.
How the eigenvalue compare with the effective length approach for predicting
buckling?
What is the relationship between the eigenmode and the effective length of the
column (Refer textbook).
Consider an A992 steel W14 x 68 column cross-section. Develop the normalized
buckling load (Pcr/PY) vs. slenderness ratio (L/rx) curves for the column crosssection. Assume that the boundary conditions are simply supported for buckling
about the x, y, and z axes.
Which buckling mode dominates for different column lengths?
Is torsional buckling a possibility for practical columns of this length?
Will elastic buckling occur for most practical lengths of this column?

Problem No. 3

Consider a C10 x 30 column section. The length of the column is 15 ft. What is the
buckling capacity of the column if it is simply supported for buckling about the yaxis (of non-symmetry), pin-fix for flexure about the x-axis (of symmetry) and
simply supported in torsion about the z-axis. Which buckling mode dominates?

Column Buckling - Inelastic


A long topic

Effects of geometric imperfection


EIx v Pv 0
EIy u Pu 0

Leads to bifurcation buckling of


perfect doubly-symmetric columns

M x P(v v o ) 0
EIxv P(v v o ) 0

v Fv2 (v v o ) 0
v o o sin

z
L

vo

Mx

v Fv2v Fv2v o
v Fv2v Fv2 (o sin
Solution v c v p

z
)
L

v c A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)
z
z
v p C sin Dcos
L
L

Effects of Geometric Imperfection


Solve for C and D first

z
L
2

z
z
z
z
z
C sin Dcos Fv2 C sin Dcos Fv2o sin 0

L
L
L
L
L
L
2
2

z
z
2
2
2
sin C Fv C Fv o cos D Fv D 0
L L
L L

2
2
2
2
C Fv C Fv o 0 and D Fv D 0
L
L

vp Fv2v p Fv2o sin

Fv2o
C
2
2
Fv
L
Solution becomes

and D 0

Fv2o
z
v A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)
sin
L
2
2
Fv
L

Geometric Imperfection
Solve for A and B
Boundary conditions v(0) v(L) 0
v(0) B 0
v(L) A sin Fv L 0
A0
Solution becomes
Fv2o
z
v
sin
2
L

2
Fv
L
Fv2
o
2
P


z PE o
z
L
v
sin

sin
Fv2
L 1 P
L
1
2
PE


L

P
z
PE
v
o sin
P
L
1
PE
Total Deflection
P
z
z
PE
v vo
o sin o sin
P
L
L
1
PE
P

z
1
z
E 1 o sin
o sin
L 1 P
L
1 P

PE
PE
z
AFo sin
L

AF = amplification factor

Geometric Imperfection
1

AF

amplification factor
P
1
PE
M x P(v v o )
z
M x AF (Po sin )
L
i.e., M x AF (moment due to initial crooked)
12

10
Amplification Factor A F

Increases exponentially
Limit AF for design
Limit P/PE for design

Value used in the code is 0.877


This will give AF = 8.13
Have to live with it.

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6
P/PE

0.8

Residual Stress Effects

Residual Stress Effects

History of column inelastic buckling

Euler developed column elastic buckling equations (buried in the


million other things he did).

Take a look at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EuleR


An amazing mathematician

In the 1750s, I could not find the exact year.

The elastica problem of column buckling indicates elastic


buckling occurs with no increase in load.

dP/dv=0

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

Engesser extended the elastic column buckling theory in 1889.

He assumed that inelastic


buckling occurs with no
increase in load, and the
relation between stress
and strain is defined by
tangent modulus Et

Engessers tangent modulus theory is easy to apply. It compares


reasonably with experimental results.

PT=ETI / (KL)2

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

In 1895, Jasinsky pointed out the problem with Engessers


theory.

If dP/dv=0, then the 2nd order moment (Pv) will produce


incremental strains that will vary linearly and have a zero value at
the centroid (neutral axis).
The linear strain variation will have compressive and tensile
values. The tangent modulus for the incremental compressive
strain is equal to Et and that for the tensile strain is E.

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

In 1898, Engesser corrected his original theory by accounting


for the different tangent modulus of the tensile increment.

This is known as the reduced modulus or double modulus


The assumptions are the same as before. That is, there is no
increase in load as buckling occurs.

The corrected theory is shown in the following slide

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

The buckling load PR produces critical


stress R=Pr/A

During buckling, a small curvature d


is introduced

The strain distribution is shown.

The loaded side has dL and dL

The unloaded
side
d ( y
y has
y) dd
U and dU
L

dU ( y y y1 ) d
d L E t ( y y1 y) d
dU E( y y y1 ) d

History of Column Inelastic Buckling


Q d v
d L E t ( y y1 y) v
dU E( y y y1 ) v
But, the assumption is dP 0
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

dU dA d L dA 0
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

E( y y y1 ) dA E t ( y y1 y) dA 0
ES1 E t S2 0
y

where, S1 ( y y y1 ) dA
yy1

and S 2

yy1

( y y1 y) dA

( d y)

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

S1 and S2 are the statical moments of the areas to the left and
right of the neutral axis.

Note that the neutral axis does not coincide with the centroid any
more.
The location of the neutral axis is calculated using the equation
derived ES1 - EtS2 = 0

M Pv
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

M dU ( y y y1) dA d L ( y y1 y) dA
M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )
y

where, I1 ( y y y1 ) 2 dA
yy1

and I 2

yy1

( y y1 y) 2 dA

( d y)

History of Column Inelastic Buckling


M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )
Pv ( EI1 E t I2 )v 0
v

P
v 0
EI1 E t I2

v Fv2v 0
P
P

EI1 E t I2 EIx
I
I
and E E 1 E t 2
Ix
Ix
where, Fv2

2 EIx
PR
(KL) 2

E is the reduced or double modulus


PR is the reduced modulus buckling load

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

For 50 years, engineers were faced with the dilemma that the
reduced modulus theory is correct, but the experimental data
was closer to the tangent modulus theory. How to resolve?

Shanley eventually resolved this dilemma in 1947. He


conducted very careful experiments on small aluminum
columns.

He found that lateral deflection started very near the theoretical


tangent modulus load and the load capacity increased with
increasing lateral deflections.
The column axial load capacity never reached the calculated
reduced or double modulus load.

Shanley developed a column model to explain the observed


phenomenon

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

History of Column Inelastic Buckling

Column Inelastic Buckling

Three different theories

Tangent modulus
Reduced modulus
Shanley model
dP/dv=0

Tangent modulus theory


assumes

Perfectly straight column


Ends are pinned
Small deformations
No strain reversal during
buckling

Slope is zero at buckling


P=0 with increasing v
v
Elastic buckling analysis
PT

Tangent modulus theory

Assumes that the column buckles at the tangent modulus load such
that there is an increase in P (axial force) and M (moment).

The axial strain increases everywhere and there is no strain reversal.


Strain and stress state just before buckling

PT

T
Mx - Pv = 0

Strain and stress state just after buckling

v
v

T=PT/A

Mx

T=ETT

Curvature = = slope of strain diagram

T
h
h

T y
where y dis tan ce from centroid
2

T y E T
2

PT

Tangent modulus theory

Deriving the equation of equilibrium


M x ydA
A

T T
T ( y h / 2) E T

M x T ( y h / 2)E T ydA
A

M x T y dA E T y 2 dA h / 2)E T y dA
A

M x 0 E T Ix 0
M x E T Ix v

The equation Mx- PTv=0 becomes -ETIxv - PTv=0

Solution is PT= 2ETIx/L2

Example - Aluminum columns

Consider an aluminum column with Ramberg-Osgood stressE 10100 ksi


strain curve

40.15 ksi
0.2

0.002

E
0.2

1 0.002 n1
n n
E 0.2
0.002
1 n nE n1

0.2

E
n1
0.002
1
nE

0.2

0.2

n1 E T

0.002

1
nE

0.2

0.2

0.000E+00
1.980E-04
3.960E-04
5.941E-04
7.921E-04
9.901E-04
1.188E-03
1.386E-03
1.584E-03
1.782E-03
1.980E-03
2.178E-03
2.376E-03
2.575E-03
2.775E-03
2.979E-03
3.198E-03
3.458E-03
3.829E-03
4.483E-03
5.826E-03
8.771E-03
1.529E-02
2.949E-02
5.967E-02
1.221E-01

18.55

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50

ET
ET
differences
equation
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10099.9
10099.8
10099.5
10098.8
10097.6
10094.2
10088.7
10075.1
10054.2
10005.7
9934.0
9779.8
9563.7
9142.0
8602.6
7697.4
6713.6
5394.2
4251.9
3056.9
2218.6
1488.8
1037.0
679.2
468.1
306.9
212.4
140.8
98.5
66.3
46.9
32.1
23.0

Tangent Modulus Buckling


Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain

Stress-tangent modulus relationship

60
12000
Tangent Modulus (ksi)

S
t
r
e
s
s
(
k
s
i)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0.000

10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

0.010

0.020

0.030

Strain (in./in.)

0.040

0.050

10

20

30

40

Stress (ksi)
ET differences

ET equation

50

Tangent Modulus Buckling


(KL/r)cr
223.2521046
157.8630771
128.8946627
111.6260523
99.84137641
91.1422898
84.3813604
78.93150275
74.41710153
70.59690679
67.3048795
64.4113691
61.77857434
59.17430952
56.09208286
51.5097656
44.14566415
34.1419685
24.00464013
15.9961201
10.48827475
6.902516144
4.596633406
3.105440361
2.129145204

Column Inelastic Buckling Curve


60
Tangent Modulus Buckling Stress

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50

2 E T Ix
PT
L2
PT
2 E T Ix
2 ET
T

2
A
AL2
KL / r

50
40

2 ET
KL / rcr
T

30
20
10

0
0

30

60

90
KL/r

120

150

Residual Stress Effects

Consider a rectangular section


with a simple residual stress
distribution

x
d

Assume that the steel material


has elastic-plastic stress-strain
curve.

Assume simply supported end


conditions

Assume triangular distribution


for residual stresses

rc

rt
y/b

rc

y
y

Residual Stress Effects

One major constrain on residual


stresses is that they must be such
that
dA 0
r

2
0.5 y y
b
b / 2

b / 2

2 y
x d dx 0.5 y
x d dx
b
0

2d y b 2 2d y b 2
0.5 y d b 2 0.5 y d b 2


b 8
b 8
0
0

Residual stresses are produced by


uneven cooling but no load is
present

Residual Stress Effects


b

Response will be such that elastic behavior when

x
d

0.5 y
2 EIy
2 EIx
Px
and Py
L2
L2
Yielding occurs when
0.5 y i.e., P 0.5PY

Inelastic buckling will occur after 0.5 y

2
Y Y b Y (1 2 )

Y
Y/b

Residual Stress Effects


Total axial force corresponding to the yielded sec tion
Y (1 2 )
Y b 2bd Y
bd 2

2
Y 1 2 bd Y (2 2 )bd
Y bd 2bd Y 2 Y bd 2 2bd Y
Y bd(1 2 2 ) PY (1 2 2 )
If inelastic buckling were to occur at this load
Pcr PY (1 2 2 )

1
Pcr
1

2
PY

If inelastic buckling occurs about x axis

2E
d3
Pcr PTx 2 (2b)
L
12
2 EIx
PTx
2
L2
1 Pcr
PTx Px 2
1
2
PY
PTx Px 2

1 PTx
1

2
PY

PTx Px
1 PTx

2
1

PY PY
2
PY
PTx 1
1 PTx

2
1

PY 2x
2
PY

2x

P
2 1 Tx
PY

PTx
PY

b
x
y

Q Pcr PTx
2

P
1
E
r
Let, x 2 2
x
PY x
Y K x L x

If inelastic buckling occurs about y axis

2E
d
Pcr PTy 2 (2b) 3
L
12
2 EIy
3
PTy
2

L2
3

1
P
PTy Py 2 1 cr
PY
2
Q Pcr PTy

PTy Py PTy

2 1

PY PY
PY

PTy 1 PTy

2 1

PY 2y
PY

x
y

P 3
PTy Py 2 1 Ty
PY

P
2 1 Ty
PY

2
y
PTy
PY

P
1
E
Let, y 2 2
PY y
Y

r 2
y
K y L y

Residual Stress Effects


P/PY
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
0.800
0.850
0.900
0.950
0.995

x
2.236
2.000
1.826
1.690
1.581
1.491
1.414
1.313
1.221
1.135
1.052
0.971
0.889
0.803
0.705
0.577
0.317

y
2.236
2.000
1.826
1.690
1.581
1.491
1.414
1.246
1.092
0.949
0.815
0.687
0.562
0.440
0.315
0.182
0.032

Tangent modulus buckling - Numerical


1

Discretize the cross-section into fibers


Think about the discretization. Do you need the flange
To be discretized along the length and width?

For each fiber, save the area of fiber (A fib), the


distances from the centroid y fib and xfib,
Ix-fib and Iy-fib the fiber number in the matrix.

Afib
yfib

Centroidal axis
3

Discretize residual stress distribution

Calculate residual stress (r-fib)


each fiber

Check that sum(r-fib Afib)for


Section = zero

Tangent Modulus Buckling - Numerical


6

Calculate effective residual


strain (r) for each fiber
r=r/E

Assume centroidal strain

14

13

Calculate the critical (KL)X and (KL)Y for the


(KL)X-cr = sqrt [(EI)Tx/P]
(KL)y-cr = sqrt [(EI)Ty/P]

Calculate the tangent (EI)TX and (EI)TY for the


(EI)TX = sum(ET-fib{yfib2 Afib+Ix-fib})
(EI)Ty = sum(ET-fib{xfib2 Afib+ Iy-fib})

Calculate average stress = = P/A


8

Calculate total strain for each fiber


tot=+r

Assume a material stress-strain


curve for each fiber

Calculate Axial Force = P


Sum (fibAfib)

Calculate stress in each fiber fib

12

11

10

Tangent modulus buckling - numerical


Section Dimension
b
d
y

12
4
50

No. of fibers

20

A
Ix
Iy

48
64
576.00

fiber no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Afib
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

xfib
-5.7
-5.1
-4.5
-3.9
-3.3
-2.7
-2.1
-1.5
-0.9
-0.3
0.3
0.9
1.5
2.1
2.7
3.3
3.9
4.5
5.1
5.7

yfib
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

r-fib
-22.5
-17.5
-12.5
-7.5
-2.5
2.5
7.5
12.5
17.5
22.5
22.5
17.5
12.5
7.5
2.5
-2.5
-7.5
-12.5
-17.5
-22.5

r-fib
-7.759E-04
-6.034E-04
-4.310E-04
-2.586E-04
-8.621E-05
8.621E-05
2.586E-04
4.310E-04
6.034E-04
7.759E-04
7.759E-04
6.034E-04
4.310E-04
2.586E-04
8.621E-05
-8.621E-05
-2.586E-04
-4.310E-04
-6.034E-04
-7.759E-04

Ixfib
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2

Iyfib
78.05
62.50
48.67
36.58
26.21
17.57
10.66
5.47
2.02
0.29
0.29
2.02
5.47
10.66
17.57
26.21
36.58
48.67
62.50
78.05

Tangent Modulus Buckling - numerical


Strain Increment

Fiber no.
-0.0003
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

tot

fib
-1.076E-03
-9.034E-04
-7.310E-04
-5.586E-04
-3.862E-04
-2.138E-04
-4.138E-05
1.310E-04
3.034E-04
4.759E-04
4.759E-04
3.034E-04
1.310E-04
-4.138E-05
-2.138E-04
-3.862E-04
-5.586E-04
-7.310E-04
-9.034E-04
-1.076E-03

-31.2
-26.2
-21.2
-16.2
-11.2
-6.2
-1.2
3.8
8.8
13.8
13.8
8.8
3.8
-1.2
-6.2
-11.2
-16.2
-21.2
-26.2
-31.2

Efib
Tx-fib
Ty-fib
Pfib
29000
92800 2.26E+06
-74.88
29000
92800 1.81E+06
-62.88
29000
92800 1.41E+06
-50.88
29000
92800 1.06E+06
-38.88
29000
92800 7.60E+05
-26.88
29000
92800 5.09E+05
-14.88
29000
92800 3.09E+05
-2.88
29000
92800 1.59E+05
9.12
29000
92800 5.85E+04
21.12
29000
92800 8.35E+03
33.12
29000
92800 8.35E+03
33.12
29000
92800 5.85E+04
21.12
29000
92800 1.59E+05
9.12
29000
92800 3.09E+05
-2.88
29000
92800 5.09E+05
-14.88
29000
92800 7.60E+05
-26.88
29000
92800 1.06E+06
-38.88
29000
92800 1.41E+06
-50.88
29000
92800 1.81E+06
-62.88
29000
92800 2.26E+06
-74.88

Tangent Modulus Buckling - Numerical

Tx

-0.0005
-0.0006
-0.0007
-0.0008
-0.0009
-0.001
-0.0011
-0.0012
-0.0013
-0.0014
-0.0015
-0.0016
-0.0017
-0.0018
-0.0019
-0.002
-0.0021
-0.0022
-0.0023
-0.0024
-0.00249

-417.6
-556.8
-696
-835.2
-974.4
-1113.6
-1252.8
-1384.8
-1510.08
-1624.32
-1734.72
-1832.16
-1924.8
-2008.32
-2083.2
-2152.8
-2209.92
-2263.2
-2304.96
-2340.48
-2368.32
-2386.08
-2398.608

Ty

1856000
1856000
1856000
1856000
1856000
1670400
1670400
1484800
1299200
1299200
1113600
1113600
928000
928000
742400
556800
556800
371200
371200
185600
185600

16704000
16704000
16704000
16704000
16704000
12177216
12177216
8552448
5729472
5729472
3608064
3608064
2088000
2088000
1069056
451008
451008
133632
133632
16704
16704

KLx-cr
209.4395102
181.3799364
162.231147
148.0960979
137.1103442
128.254983
120.9199576
109.11051
104.4864889
94.98347542
85.97519823
83.65775001
75.56517263
73.97722346
66.30684706
65.22619108
57.58118233
49.27629185
48.8278711
39.56410897
39.33088015
27.70743725
27.63498414

KLy-cr
T/Y
628.3185307
0.174
544.1398093
0.232
486.6934411
0.29
444.2882938
0.348
411.3310325
0.406
384.764949
0.464
362.7598728
0.522
294.5983771
0.577
282.1135199
0.6292
227.960341
0.6768
180.5479163
0.7228
175.681275
0.7634
136.0173107
0.802
133.1590022
0.8368
99.46027059
0.868
97.83928663
0.897
69.0974188
0.9208
44.34866267
0.943
43.94508399
0.9604
23.73846538
0.9752
23.59852809
0.9868
8.312231176
0.9942
8.290495243
0.99942

(KL/r)x
181.3799364
157.0796327
140.4962946
128.254983
118.7410412
111.0720735
104.7197551
94.49247352
90.48795371
82.25810265
74.45670576
72.44973673
65.44135914
64.06615482
57.423414
56.48753847
49.86676668
42.67452055
42.28617679
34.26352344
34.06154136
23.99534453
23.9325983

(KL/r)y
181.3799364
157.0796327
140.4962946
128.254983
118.7410412
111.0720735
104.7197551
85.04322617
81.43915834
65.80648212
52.11969403
50.71481571
39.26481548
38.43969289
28.711707
28.24376924
19.94670667
12.80235616
12.68585304
6.852704688
6.812308273
2.399534453
2.39325983

Tangent Modulus Buckling - Numerical


Inelastic Column Buckling

( T/ Y)

Normalized critical stress

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

KL/r ratio
(KL/r)x

(KL/r)y

140

160

180

200

Normalized column capacity

Column Inelastic Buckling

1.2

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.5

Num-x
Elastic

1.0

Num-y

Lambda
AISC-Design

1.5

Analytical-x
Analytical-y

2.0

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Going back to the original three second-order differential


equations:

Therefore,
1

z
z

E I x v P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX
L
L

z
z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX (M
M BY

M TX
M BX
M TYTX+M

(M

)
BY
TY+M
BY)

BX
L
L

z
E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )
L
z
v
u
v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L
L

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Consider the case of a beam subjected to uniaxial bending only:

because most steel structures have beams in uniaxial bending


Beams under biaxial bending do not undergo elastic buckling

P=0;

MTY=MBY=0

The three equations simplify to:

z
M TX M BX
L
z

E I y u M BX M TX M BX
L
z
u

E I w (G KT K ) u M BX ( M BX M TX ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L

E I x v M BX

Equation (1) is an uncoupled differential equation describing inplane bending behavior caused by MTX and MBX

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Equations (2) and (3) are coupled equations in u and that


describe the lateral bending and torsional behavior of the beam.
In fact they define the lateral torsional buckling of the beam.

The beam must satisfy all three equations (1, 2, and 3). Hence,
beam in-plane bending will occur UNTIL the lateral torsional
buckling moment is reached, when it will take over.

Consider the case of uniform moment (Mo) causing compression


in the top flange. This will mean that

-MBX = MTX = Mo

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

For this case, the differential equations (2 and 3) will become:

E I y u M o 0
E I w (G KT K ) u M o 0
where :
K Wagner ' s effect due to warping caused by torsion
K a 2 dA
A

Mo
But ,
y neglecting higher order terms
Ix
Mo
y ( xo x) 2 ( yo y ) 2 dA
Ix
A

K
K
K

Mo
Ix
Mo
Ix

2
2
2
2

y
x

2
xx

y
2 yy0 dA
o
0
o

2
2
2
2
2

x
y
dA

y
x

y
dA

x
2
xy
dA

y
y
dA

2
y
y
dA
o

0
o
o

A
A
A
A
A

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS


Mo
K

Ix

2
2

A y x y dA 2 yo I x

2
2

dA
y
x

K Mo

K M ox

Ix

2 yo

where, x

2
2

dA
y
x

y

A

Ix

2 yo

x is a new sec tional property

The beam buckling differential equations become :


(2) E I y u M o 0
(3) E I w (G KT M o x ) u M o 0

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS


Equation (2) gives u

Mo

E Iy

Substituting u from Equation (2) in (3) gives :


2
M
E I w iv (G KT M o x ) o 0
E Iy

For doubly symmetric sec tion : x 0


2
M
G
K
T
iv
2 o 0
E Iw
E I y Iw

G KT
Let , 1
E Iw

and

M o2
2 2
E I y Iw

iv 1 2 0 becomes the combined d .e. of LTB

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS


Assume solution is of the form e z

4 1 2 2 e z 0
4 1 2 2 0

1 12 42

2
2

1 12 42

2
Let , 1 , and

12 42 1
,
2
1 12 42
, i
2
i 2

Above are the four roots for


C1e1z C2e 1 z C3ei 2 z C4e i 2 z
collecting real and imaginary terms
G1 cosh(1 z ) G2 sinh(1 z ) G3 sin( 2 z ) G4 cos( 2 z )

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Assume simply supported boundary conditions for the beam:


(0) (0) ( L) ( L) 0
Solution for must satisfy all four b.c.

G 1
2

G
2

2 0
cos( 2 L)
G 3

G 4
22 cos( 2 L)
For buckling coefficient matrix must be sin gular :
det er min ant of matrix 0
1
12
cosh(1 L)
12 cosh(1 L)

0
0
sinh(1 L)
12 sinh(1L)

0
0
sin( 2 L)
22 sin( 2 L)

12 22 sinh(1 L) sinh( 2 L) 0
Of these :
only sinh( 2 L) 0
2 L n

ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS


2

n
L

12 42 1

2
L
2 2
2
1 42 1 2
L
2

2 2

2 2
2 2
2
21
2 1 1
2
2
L
L
L

4
4
2
2
2 2 1 2
L
L
2 G KT 2
M o2
2 2
2

E I y Iw L
E I w L2
Mo


G KT

2
2
L
E
I
w L

E2 I y Iw

2E I y
Mo
L2

2E Iw

G KT

2
L