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9.

2 MANUFACTURE
OF AMMONIA AND
ITS SALTS

Radi
o a ct
i
ve

WHAT IS AMMONIA?
Ammonia,
orazane,
is
a
compound
of
nitrogen
and
hydrogen with the formula NH3. It
is a colourless gas with a
characteristic
and
famous
pungent smell.

USES OF AMMONIA
The use of ammonia, NH3, includes the
manufacture of :
1. Nitrogenous fertilisers
2. Electrolyte in dry cells
3. Nitric acid, HNO3
4. Cold pack (such as ammonium nitrate, NH3NO3)
5. Cleansing agents (such as washing powders and detergents)
6. Explosives (such as trinitrotoluene (TNT))

THE HABER PROCESS


The Haber process, also called the HaberBosch
process, is the industrial implementation of the
reaction of nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. It is
the main industrial procedure to produce
ammonia

WIE GEHT ES
DIR?

The Haber Process was discovered by German


chemist, Fritz Haber. In 1918, he won the Nobel
Prize in Chemistry for this discovery.
FRITZ
HABER

PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA
Properties of Ammonia, NH3, include:
a) Very soluble in water
b) Pungent smell
c) Is a colourless gas
d) Produce thick white fumes with hydrogen chloride gas, HCl.
e) Less dense than air
f) Changes moist red litmus paper to blue (ammonia is an
alkaline gas)
g) Neutralizes acid to form salt
Example: H2SO4 + 2NH3

(NH4)2SO4

MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA BY
HABER PROCESS
In the Haber Process, dry nitrogen gas, N2, and dry hydrogen
gas, H2, are mixed in the mol or volume ratio to 1 to 3 (1:3)
The gas mixture is then passed over iron fillings (catalyst) at
temperatures from 450C and compressed under a pressure of
200 atmosphere to produce ammonia gas, NH3.
N2 (g) + 3H2 (g)

2NH3 (g)

Ammonia gas, NH3, obtained is cooled and condensed to form


liquid ammonia, NH3 (aq)

SUMMARY OF HABER
PROCESS
Nitrogen is
obtained by
fractional
distillitation of
liquid air

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g)

2NH3 (g)

Mole ratio (volume)


of nitrogen to
hydrogen is 1:3.
Hydrogen is
obtained from
natural gas
methane, CH4.

Conditions:
Temperature :
450C
Pressure: 200
atmosphere
Catalyst: Iron
fillings

PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM
FERTILISERS IN THE LABORATORY
Neutralisations reactions between aqueous ammonia , NH 3
(ak), (alkali) and an acid solution to produce ammonium
salts, NH4+, which can be used in fertilisers.
Example:
3NH3 + H3PO4

(NH4)3PO4 (Ammonium Phosphate)

NH3 + HNO3

NH4NO3 (Ammonium Nitrate)

2NH3 + H2SO4

(NH4)2SO4 (Ammonium Sulphate)

The apparatus set-up below can be used to


prepare ammonium sulphate salt, (NH4)2SO4

1 mol of dm-3 ammonia solution, is


drippled drop by drop into the sulphuric
acid while stirring until the solution
smells of ammonia (or red litmus paper
turns blue).

The solution is poured into the


evaporating dish and the following
steps are conducted.
1. Heat the solution until
saturated/concentrated
2. Cool down the solution until salt
crystals form
3. Filter salt crystals
4. Rinse with a little distilled water
5. Dry with filter paper

H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH3 (aq)

(NH4)2SO4 (aq)

BEAUTIFUL CHEMICAL REACTIONS! ENJOY