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You are on page 1of 17

dp

VdV gdz 0

Also recall that viscous forces were neglected, i.e. flow is invisicd

If one integrates Eulers eqn. along a streamline, between two points , &

We get :

2

dp 2

VdV gdz 0

1

1

2

p1 V1

p2 V22

gz1

gz 2 Constant

2

Flow work + kinetic energy + potential energy = constant

Flow Work (p/) :

It is the work required to move fluid across the control volume boundaries.

Consider a fluid element of cross-sectional area

A with pressure p acting on the control surface

as shown.

x

A

Due to the fluid pressure, the fluid element moves a distance x within

time t. Hence, the work done per unit time W/t (flow power) is:

p

W pAx p

x

A

AV ,

t

t

t

p 1

AV

p

pv

Flow work is often also referred to as flow energy

Very Important: Bernoullis equation is only valid for :

incompressible fluids, steady flow along a streamline, no energy loss due

to friction, no heat transfer.

2

p1 V1

p2 V22

z1

2g

2g

Application of Bernoullis equation - Example 1:

Determine the velocity and mass flow rate of efflux from the circular

hole (0.1 m dia.) at the bottom of the water tank (at this instant). The

tank is open to the atmosphere and H=4 m

p1 = p2, V1=0

1

V2 2 g ( z1 z 2 ) 2 gH

2 * 9.8 * 4 8.85 (m / s )

4

69.5 (kg / s )

Example 2: If the tank has a cross-sectional area of 1 m2, estimate the time

required to drain the tank to level 2.

1

First, choose the control volume as enclosed

by the dotted line. Specify h=h(t) as the water

level as a function of time.

h(t)

2

water height (m)

4

3

h( t ) 2

2.5e-007

1

0

2 h - 0.0443t

4

0

0

20

40

60

t

time (sec.)

80

100

100

t 90.3 sec

Energy added, hA

(ex. pump, compressor)

p2 V2

z2

2g

p1 V1

z1

2g

Energy lost, hL

(ex. friction, valve, expansion)

Energy extracted, hE

(ex. turbine, windmill)

hL

loss through

valves

heat exchanger

hE

hA

turbine

pump

hL, friction loss

through pipes

condenser

hL

loss through

elbows

Energy conservation(cont.)

If energy is added, removed or lost via pumps turbines, friction, etc.then we use

2

p1 V1

p2 V22

Extended Bernoullis Equation

z1 hA hE hL

z2

2g

2g

Example: Determine the efficiency of the pump if the power input of the motor

is measured to be 1.5 hp. It is known that the pump delivers 300 gal/min of water.

No turbine work and frictional losses, hence: hE=hL=0. Also z1=z2

4-in dia.pipe

1

zo

pump

Z=15 in

V1= Q/A1=3.33 ft/s V2=Q/A2=7.54 ft/s

V22 V12 (7.54) 2 (3.33)2

0.71 ft,

2g

2 * 32.2

Looking at the pressure term:

p1 w zo m z p2 w zo w z

water (w=62.4 lb/ft3)

1 hp=550 lb-ft/s

p2 p1 ( m w )z

(844.9 62.4) * 1.25 978.13 lb / ft 2

Example (cont.)

p2 p1 978.13

15.67 ( ft )

w

62.4

p2 p1 V22 V12

pump work hA

16.38( ft )

w

2g

Flow power delivered by pump

P = w QhA (62.4)(0.667)(16.38)

681.7( ft lb / s)

1hp 550 ft lb / s

P 1.24hp

P

1.24

Efficiency =

0.827 82.7%

Pinput

1.5

2

p1 V1

p2 V22

Extended Bernoulli' s equation,

z1 hA hE hL

z2

2g

2g

p1 p2 p

P1

P2

Consider a laminar, fully developed circular pipe flow

R: radius, D: diameter

L: pipe length

w: wall shear stress

[ p ( p dp)](R 2 ) w (2R)dx,

w

p

P+dp

2 w

dp

dx, integrate from 1 to 2

R

I

F I F IF

HK HKG

H JK

p p1 p2

4 4w w L L L LV 2 V

Darcys Equation:

hhLL

f f

gg D D D D2 g 2 g

2

f f VV 2 where f is defined as frictional factor characterizing

w

44 22 pressure loss due to pipe wall shear stress

2

I

F IF

G

HK

H JK

When the pipe flow is laminar, it can be shown (not here) that

f

64

VD

, by recognizing that Re

, as Reynolds number

VD

64

, frictional factor is a function of the Reynolds number

Re

Similarly, for a turbulent flow, f = function of Reynolds number also

Therefore, f

roughness as relativeto the pipe diameter

.

D

F

I

Re, : Pipe frictional factor is a function of pipe Reynolds

Such that ff FF Re,

H DDK

number and the relative roughness of pipe.

This relation is sketched in the Moody diagram as shown in the following page.

The diagram shows f as a function of the Reynolds number (Re), with a series of

parametric curves related to the relative roughness

FI.

HDDK

Major Losses: due to friction, significant head loss is associated with the straight

portions of pipe flows. This loss can be calculated using the Moody chart or

F

G

H3.7

Re

IJ

fK

pipe flows also contribute to the total head loss of the system. Their contributions

are generally termed minor losses.

The head losses and pressure drops can be characterized by using the loss coefficient,

hL

p

KL, which is defined as

2

1

K

L

V / 2g

2

1 V 2

2

, so that p K V

L 2

One of the example of minor losses is the entrance flow loss. A typical flow pattern

for flow entering a sharp-edged entrance is shown in the following page. A vena

contracta region is formed at the inlet because the fluid can not turn a sharp corner.

Flow separation and associated viscous effects will tend to decrease the flow energy;

the phenomenon is fairly complicated. To simplify the analysis, a head loss and the

associated loss coefficient are used in the extended Bernoullis equation to take into

consideration this effect as described in the next page.

V1

V2

V 2

2

V3

gz

(1/2)V32

(1/2)V22

KL(1/2)V32

pp

p1 V1

p3 V32

V32

Extended Bernoulli's Equation :

z1 hL

z3 , hL K L

2g

2g

2g

p1 p3 p , V1 0, V3 1

1 KL

( 2 g ( z1 z3 )

2

gh

1 KL

Let us now also account for energy transfer via Heat Transfer, e.g.

in a heat exchanger

The most general form of conservation of energy for a system can be

written as:

dE = dQ-dW where

(Ch. 3, YAC)

dE Change in Total Energy, E

and E = U(internal energy)+Em(mechanical energy)

E = U + KE (kinetic energy) + PE(potential energy)

dW Work done by the system where

W = Wext(external work) + Wflow(flow work)

(Ch. 1 YAC)

mechanical

energy

radiation)

Convention: dQ > 0 net heat transfer into the system (Symbols Q,q..)

dW > 0, positive work done by the system

Q: What is Internal Energy ?

U = mu, u(internal energy per unit mass),

KE = (1/2)mV2 and PE = mgz

Flow work Wflow= m (p/)

It is common practice to combine the total energy with flow work.

Thus:

F

I

G

JK

H

V2

pp

gz ) plus Flow work rate m

p V2

p V2

Flow energy in m in (u

gz )in , Energy out = m out (u

gz )out

2

2

The difference between energy in and out is due to heat transfer (into or out)

and work done (by or on) the system.

Hence, a system exchanges energy with the environment due to:

1) Flow in/out 2) Heat Transfer, Q and 3) Work, W

This energy exchange is governed by the First Law of Thermodynamics

2

p V

m in (u

gz )in

2

p V2

m in (u

gz )out

2

system

dQ

p V2

p V2

dW

m (u

gz )in m (u

gz )out

, or

dt

2

2

dt

dQ

V2

V2

dW

m ( h

gz )in m (h

gz )out

dt

2

2

dt

p

where h u is defined as "enthaply"

Enthalpy

Example: Superheated water vapor enters a steam turbine at a mass flow rate

1 kg/s and exhausting as saturated steam as shown. Heat loss from the turbine is

10 kW under the following operating condition. Determine the turbine power output.

10 kw

P=1.4 Mpa

T=350 C

V=80 m/s

z=10 m

hin=3149.5 kJ/kg

dQ

V2

V2

dW

m (h

gz )in m (h

gz )out

dt

2

2

dt

dW

( 10) (1)[(3149.5 2748.7)

dt

80 2 50 2 (9.8)(10 5)

]

2(1000)

1000

10 400.8 1.95 0.049

P=0.5 Mpa

100% saturated steam

392.8( kW )

V=50 m/s

z=5 m

From saturated steam tables: hout=2748.7 kJ/kg

Q, q ?!%

Q total heat transfer (J)

q heat transfer per unit mass (J/kg)

Back

Internal Energy ?

Internal energy, U (total) or u (per unit mass) is the sum of all

microscopic forms of energy.

It can be viewed as the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the

molecules

Due to the vibrational, translational and rotational energies of the moelcules.

Proportional to the temperature of the gas.

Back

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