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In Layman words research means to

search for knowledge
Research is an art of scientific investigation
i.e. systematic & objective, identification,
collection, analysis, dissemination and use of
information for the purpose of improving
decision making
Inquisitiveness(act of detailed questioning) is
the mother of research

Redman and Mory defined research as a
Systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
Clifford Woody defined research as defining and
redefining problems, formulating hypothesis, collecting,
organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and
reaching conclusion and at last carefully testing the
conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating

Marketing Research is objective

i.e. attempts to provide accurate
information that reflects a true state of
It should be conducted impartially
The motto of every researcher should be
find it & tell it like it is

Why Research required

To identify and find solution to the problem

To help making decision
To develop new concepts
To find alternative strategies

Objectives of MR

Promotes better decision making

Research is the basis for innovation
Research identifies the problem area
Research helps in forecasting
Helps to formulate policies & strategies
Helps to understand competitive environment
Helps to optimal utilization of resources
Identify marketing opportunities & constraints
Evaluating marketing plans

Applied research
Aims at finding a sol for an immediate pb
Deals with real life situation
Has practical problem solving emphasis
MR is an applied research
Pure/Fundamental / basic research
Gathering knowledge for knowledge sake
Doesnt have commercial potential
Conceptual research
Used by Philosophers & thinkers
It is related to some abstract ideas or theory
Do research to prove or disapprove his

Empirical research/ Ex- post Facto
Examination of relationship that exist b/w independent
and dependent variable
Ex post Facto Means From what is done afterward
Researcher only report what has happened &
what is happening. No scope to manipulate the
Historical research
Based on past records & data in order to understand
the future trends
No direct observation, research has to depend on the
conclusions or inference drawn in the past.

Action research
Undertaken by direct action, Conducted to solve the
Most common for industrial product
E.g. Test marketing
Evaluation research
To find out how well the planned programmed is
Evaluating the performance or assessment of a
Causal research
Helps to determine Cause and effect relationship b/w
the variables.

Exploratory Research
Carried out at the very beginning, when the pb is not
clear or is vague.
Explore or search through the pb or situation to
provide insight & understanding
Formulate the problem
Few methods are Expert surveys, focus group, case
studies, observation methods.

Descriptive research
Fact finding investigation
Presents state of affairs as it is.
The objective is to descried the characteristics of
respondent in relation to a particular product
Definite conclusions can be arrived at, but it doesnt
establish cause & effect relationship.
Deals with demographic characteristics of the


It should be systematic

Well structured
Orderly sequenced based on set of defined rules
Procedure followed are methodologically sound
Well documented

It Should be logical
There should be Logical reasoning in research.
Logical process used could be induction or deduction
Induction process of reasoning from the part to the whole
e.g. pricing, new product development,
Deduction - is a process of reasoning some premise and
then reaching the conclusion which follows from that
E.g. All products manufactured by Reebok are good. this
leather wallet is a product of Reebok, so it must be good.

It Should be empirical
Factual investigation is possible
Should provide basis for validity
i.e. possible to describe, interpret and explain the

It Should be replicable.
Results can be verified, by conducting research any no of
times & by diff researcher.

Classification of Marketing research

Marketing research engaged for two reasons identify &
solve marketing problems.
so classified as
Problem identification research
Problem solving research
Problem identification research is undertaken to identify
the problem that are perhaps not apparent on the
surface & yet exist or likely to arise in the future.
Problem solving research is under taken to arrive at a
Used in making decision which will solve specific
marketing problem.
Both go hand-in-hand.

Marketing and Market Research

Marketing research - is the gathering of
information on all activities of marketing
Market research - is the gathering of
information on a particular market for a product
or service
Marketing research has a wider scope than
market research

Marketing Research Process

Conceptualized into six steps
1.Problem Definition
2.Development of an approach to the problem
3.Research design formulation
4.Data collection or Field work
5.Data preparation & analysis
6.Report preparation & presentation

Problem Definition
Defining the Marketing Research
Problem and Developing an

Problem Definition
Understand the purpose of the study
Collect relevant back ground information
Discussion with decision makers, interviews
with industry experts, secondary data
analysis, qualitative study
Once problem is defined precisely, research
can be designed and conducted properly.

Problem definition
Truly serious mistakes are made not as a result
of wrong answers but because of asking the
wrong question by Peter Drucker
Problem identification is more vital for the
fulfillment of clients needs
This point is critical and inadequate problem
identification leads to failure of marketing
research projects.
It involves stating the general marketing
research problem and identify its specific

Mgmt decision pb & MR problem

MDP asks what the DM needs to do,
whereas the MRP asks what information
is needed & how best it can be
MDP is action oriented & MRP is
information oriented
MDP focuses on symptoms & MRP
focuses on underlying causes.

Management Decision Problem Vs.

Marketing Research Problem
Management Decision Problem

Marketing Research Problem

Should a new product be


To determine consumer preferences

and purchase intentions for the
proposed new product.

Should the advertising

campaign be changed?

To determine the effectiveness

of the current advertising

Should the price of the

brand be increased?

To determine the price elasticity

of demand and the impact on sales
and profits of various levels
of price changes.

Defining the marketing research pb

General rule
Allow the researcher to obtain all the information
needed to address the mgmt decision pd.
Guide the researcher in proceeding with the project.
Common error
When research pb is defined too broadly
Will not provide clear guidelines for subsequent
E.g. developing a marketing strategy for the brand,
improving the competitive position of the firm,
When research pb is defined too narrowly.
Narrow focus may preclude consideration of some
courses of action, which may prevent researcher
addressing the imp component of Mgmt decision

Development of an approach to
the problem
Formulating an Objective / Theoretical
Analytical Model
Research Questions
Specification of Information Needed
This process guided by discussions with
management & industry experts.

Research Design formulation

Is a frame work or blue print for conducting research
Details the procedure and designs the study to test the
hypotheses of interest, determines possible answers to
the research question, and information needed for
decision making.
It involves following steps
Definition of the information needed
Secondary data analysis
Qualitative research
Methods of collecting quantitative data
Measurement & scaling procedures
Questionnaire design
Sampling process & sample size
Plan of data analysis

Field work or Data collection

Personnel interviewing(in-home, mall or
computer assisted personnel interview)
Telephonic interview
Through mail( mail & mail panel survey or
Proper selection, training, supervision, &
evaluation of field force minimize data
collection errors.

Data preparation & analysis

Editing, coding, transcription & verification of
Data are transcribed or input directly into
For data analysis either uni-variate or multivariate techniques are used

Report preparation &

Entire project documented,
Report addresses the specific research
question identified, describes the approach,
research design, data collection & data
analysis methods, & major findings
Reports presented in a comprehensible
Oral presentation should be made to top
Sometimes even posted on wed

These steps are interdependent & iterative

Research process
Problem formulation

Research design
Design of data collection methods and forms
Sample design and data collection
Analysis and interpretation of data
Research report

Research Questions and Hypotheses

Research questions (RQs) are refined
statements of the specific components of
the problem.
RQ ask what specific information is requires
WRT the problems components.
RQ should be guided by both problem
definition & also by theoretical framework &
analytical model.
RQ may be further refined into one or more

A hypothesis (H) is an unproven statement or

proposition about a factor or phenomenon that
is of interest to the researcher.
Often, a hypothesis is a possible answer to
the research question.
Hypothesis are declarative and can be tested
empirically where as RQ are interrogative
An imp role of hypothesis is to suggest
variables to be included in the research

Marketing Research proposal

Contains the essence of the project & serves as
a contract between the researcher &
It covers all phases of marketing research
Also it gives the cost estimate & the time
schedule for completing the project.
Helps the researcher conceptualize & execute
the marketing research proposal
The format of a research proposal may vary, but
most proposals address the following steps.

Marketing Research Proposal

Executive Summary
Summary of major points from each section,
presenting an overview of the entire proposal.
History of the problem including the environmental
context, discussed.
Problem Definition/Objectives of the Research
A statement of the problem including the specific
components. This helps to define the objectives of
the research.
Approach to the Problem
Relevant academic & theoretical framework along
with analytical model, RQ, Hypothesis & if any
others factors are included.

Research Design
The research design adopted specified. Information on 1) kind
of information to be obtained, 2) method of administering the
questionnaire, 3) scaling technique 4) nature of questionnaire,
5) sampling size & sample are provided.
Fieldwork/Data Collection
Discuss how & who collect the data. if subcontracted to whom
it is & measure taken to ensure the quality are described.
Data Analysis
Simple cross tabulation, univariate or multivariate analysis &
how the results will be interpreted
Whether intermediate reports will be presented & at stages,
what will be form of final report, whether formal presentation
Cost and Time
Cost & time schedule, broken down by phases, payment terms
Any statistical or other information that is of interest to only a
few people should be contained in appendices.