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ECOLOGICAL

CONSIDERATION OF SITE
GROUP 1
Jouill Villanueva
Carren Evangelista
Nadine Alabado
Marvin Derla
Jesniel Tipon
Mark Anthony Calanao
Sheree Nichole Guillergan

Architecture 3B

Archt Margarette Albacete


Instructor

CONTENT

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

GROUND FORM
SOIL AND GEOLOGY
WATER RESOURCES
MICROCLIMATE
ORIENTATION

INTRODUCTION

An ecosystem is a complex system with many parts, both and non-living. All
parts of the system are important. If one part of the system is removed, lots of
other parts can be affected.

If a part of ecosystem is missing may continue for a while but in time would
start falling apart.

All of the parts of the ecosystem work together. If you do not think about how
your work will affect the land, water or air where you are working, you could
damage that ecosystem by poisoning the land or water, removing plants and
trees or killing the fish, insects, birds and animals that live there.

GROUND FORM

A formation or geological formation is the fundamental


unit of lithostratigraphy. A formation consists of a
certain number of rock strata C that have a
comparable lithology, facies or other similar
properties. Formations are not defined on the thickness
of the rock strata they consist of and the thickness of
different formations can therefore vary widely.
The concept of formally defined layers or strata is
central to the geologic discipline of stratigraphy.
Formations can be divided into members and are
themselves frequently parcelled together in groups.

A geologic cross section of the Grand Canyon.


Black numbers correspond to groups of
formations and white numbers correspond to
formations

Ground formation is to be considered in site


selection or regarding the development of any
site. The surface features of a plot of land, which
influences where and how to build a
developement site.

To study the response of a building design to the


topography of a site sections or a site, we can
use a series if site selection or a site plan with
contour lines.

Contour lines are imiginary lines joining points of


equal elevation above a datum or bench mark
the trajectory of each contour lines indicates the
shape of the land formation at that elevation.

Patterned Ground

is the distinct, and often symmetrical geometric shapes


formed by ground material in periglacialregions.

Types of patterned
ground

Patterned ground can be found in a variety of forms.

Polygons- can form either inpermafrostareas or in areas


that are affected by seasonalfrost.
Circles range in size from a few centimeters to several
meters in diameter.
Steps can be developed from circles and polygons. This
form of patterned ground is generally a terrace-like
feature that has a border of either larger stones or
vegetation on the downslope side, and can consist of
either sorted or unsorted material.
Stripesare lines of stones, vegetation, and/or soil

CIRCLE

POLYGON

Soil

Soilis the mixture of minerals, organic


matter, gases, liquids, and the myriad of
organisms that together support plant life.

Soil

Soil serves as a foundation for most


construction projects.
Soilis intimately tied to our urgent need to
provide food for ourselves and forage for our
animals.

Types
Sand, Silt, Clay, and Loam.

Iloilo

RELEVANT SOIL
SPECIFICATION SECTIONS:

Subsurface
Investigation

Site Clearing
(stripping &
topsoil)
stockpiling

Grading

Excavation and Fill

Soil Stabilization

To improve its paving properties and compact


ability.
Applied in roads, railways, airport.

Erosion and
Sedimentation

Control

Silt fence installed on a construction site.

Earth sheltering

is the architectural practice of


usingearthagainst building walls for
externalthermal mass, to reduce heat loss,
and to easily maintain a steady indoor air
temperature.

GEOLOGY
Geology is an
earth science
comprising the
study of solid Earth,
the rocks of which it
is composed, and
the processes by
which they change.
Geology can also
refer generally to
Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by
the study of the
solid features of
providing the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the
any celestial body
evolutionary history of life, and past climates.
Geology is important for mineral and
(such as the
geology of the
hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation,
Moon or Mars).
evaluating water resources, understanding of
natural hazards, the remediation of environmental
problems, and for providing insights into past
climate change. Geology also plays a role in
geotechnical engineering and is a major academic

OTHER AREAS OF
APPLICATION

The fields of engineering ,


environmental, architectural and
urban geology are broadly
concerned with applying the
findings of geologic studies to
construction engineering and to
problems of land use. The location
of a bridge, for example, involves
geologic considerations in
selecting sites for the supporting
piers. The strength of geologic
materials such as rock or
compacted clay that occur at the
sites of the piers should be
adequate to support the load
placed on them.

GEOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF


THE EARTH:

the materials of which it is made,


the structure of those materials,
the processes acting upon them.
the study of organisms that have inhabited
our planet.
An important part of geology is the study of
how Earths materials, structures, processes
and organisms have changed over time.


Cross-cutting relations can be used
to determine the relative ages of
rock strata and other geological
structures.
Explanations:
A - folded rock strata cut by a thrust
fault;
B large intrusion (cutting through
A);
C - erosional angular unconformity
(cutting off A & B) on which rock
strata were deposited;
D -volcanic dyke (cutting through A,
B & C);
E - even younger rock strata
(overlying C & D);

GEOLOGIC
MATERIALS

ROCK

THREE MAJOR TYPES OF ROCK:


IGNEOUS
When a rock crystallizes from melt (magma and/or lava), it is an igneous
rock.
This rock can be weathered and eroded, and then redeposited and
lithified into a sedimentary rock, or be turned into a metamorphic rock due to
heat and pressure that change the mineral content.
SEDIMENTARY
The sedimentary rock can then be subsequently turned into a
metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is then weathered, eroded,
deposited, and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may also be re-eroded and redeposited, and
metamorphic rock may also undergo additional metamorphism.
METAMORPHIC
The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the
relationships between these three types of rock, and magma.
All three types of rocks may be re-melted; when this happens, a new
magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize.


The majority of research in geology is associated
with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary
record of the majority of the geologic history of the
Earth.

METHODS OF
GEOLOGY

Geologists use a number of field,


Laboratory, and numerical modeling methods to decipher Earth
history and understand the processes that occur on and inside the
Earth.
In typical geological investigations, geologists use primary
information related to:
Petrology (the study of rocks)
Stratigraphy (the study of sedimentary layers)
Structural geology (the study of positions of rock units and their
deformation).
In many cases, geologists also study modern soils, rivers,
landscapes, and glaciers; investigate past and current life and
biogeochemical pathways, and use geophysical methods to
investigate the subsurface.

WATER
RESOURCES

WATER

Water is a combination of two elementary


substances hydrogen and oxygen.
It appears in its natural state as liquid-- 830
times heavier than air, solid-- ice, gas-- vapor
or steam 133 times lighter than air
The Weight of water in liquid form 3.778kg.per
U.S gallon and 1.000kg.per cubic meter.

THERE ARE THREE SOURCE OF


WATER

Rainwater or Rainfall
FROME THE RAINFALL
ADVANTAGE

DISADVANTAGE

Obtain from roofs and watershed. It


is soft pure and good on places
where there is an abundant rainfall.

Hard to store for a long time as it will be


a breeding place for mosquitoes,
requires big containers for storing big
quantities for long uses, roofs may not
be clean, bad for places that receives a
little amount of rainfall.

Surface water- a mixture of surface run- off


and ground water includes rivers, pond and
reservoirs FROM THE NATURAL SURFACE
ADVANTAGE

DISADVANTAGE

Obtained from ponds, lakes,


Dangerous because it contains large
rivers easiness of procurements
amounts of bacteria, organic and
and good for locality near such
inorganic substances of varying
bodies of water.
quantities.

FROM UNDERGROUND
ADVANTAGE
DISADVANTAGE

Underground/ ground water- portion of the


Obtained more below ground
Because of various organic matter
rainwater
which
has percolated
into
the itearth
surface
by means
of
and chemical elements
present,
mechanical and manual
requires treatment of various
underground
deposit
called
(water
bearing soil
equipment.
natures,
such
as sedimentation,

chemical, filtration, aerations.


formation)
More water can obtained
depending by equipment used
Ground
water can be extracted by constructing
and locality.
well.

Well are holes in the earth from which a fluid may be


withdraw using manual or mechanical means such as
draw bucket, pump, etc.
TYPES OF WELL:

Dug wells can be constructed by hand tools/ power tool. It


can have the greatest diameter that a space may allow.
Driven wells the simplest and usually the least expensive.
A steel drive- well point is fitted on one end of the pipe
section & driven into the earth.
Bored wells dug w/ earth augers usually less than 30m
deep. These are done when the earth to be bored is
boulder free and will not cave in. the well is lined with
metal, vitrified tile or concrete.
Drilled well require more elaborate equipment and
accompanied by the lowering of a casing.

PROPERTIES OF WATER
HEAT CAPACITY

SURFACE TENSION

Has the ability to absorb heat without


becoming much warmer itself

Ability to stick to itself and pull itself


together

CAPILLARITY

Ability to climb up a surface against the


pull of gravity

DISSOLVING ABILITY

Ability to dissolve almost any substance

COMMON IMPURITIES OF WATER


ENTRAINED GASES
Like carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide,
methane, oxygen and nitrogenous and
organic compounds
DISSOLVED MINERALS
Such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, irons,
manganese, alkyl benzene sulfate from
detergents and synthetic organic compounds
and from insecticides and pesticides
SUSPENDED AND COLLOIDAL Such as bacteria, algae, fungi, silt, protozoa
MATERIALS
and the like that makes the water colored
and acid
RADIOACTIVE MINERALS
By entertainment of radioactive substances
from mining or processing ores, or by wastes
from industrials use of radioactive materials

METHODS OF PURIFICATION AND


TREATMENT OF WATER

SEDIMENTATION- article of matters that are suspended in the


water are allowed to stay in a container so that they will settle in
the bathroom, then drawing the water out, leaving these
sediments in the container.
CHEMICAL TREATMENTS- water are given chemical treatments to
kill the harmful bacterias present and to cure the turbid taste or
mud taste, remove clay, salts, iron etc. commonly use chemical
is chlorine.
FILTRATION- water are filtered on various processes, so as to
remove the particles of vegetable matter, mud, and other
particles of matter present in the water, most commonly used
materials are sand and gravel.
AERATION- raw water is made to pass on pipes of tiny sieves and
exposed to air of fine mist.

WATER RESOURCES

A sources ofwaterthat are


useful or potentially useful.
Uses of water
includeagricultural,industri
al,household,recreational
andenvironmentalactivitie
s. The majority of human
uses requirefresh water.
It is 97 percent of the
water on the Earth is salt
water and only three
percent isfresh water;
slightly over two thirds of
this is frozen
inglaciersandpolarice
caps.

A graphical distribution of the locations of


water on Earth. Only 3% of the earth's water
is fresh water. Most of it in icecaps and
glaciers (69%) and groundwater (30%),
while all lakes, rivers and swamps combined
only account for a small fraction of 0.3% of
the Earth's total freshwater reserves.

SOURCES OF FRESH WATER

Under river flow


Throughout the course of a river, the total
volume of water transported downstream will
often be a combination of the visible free water
flow together with a substantial contribution
flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels
that underlie the river and its floodplain called
thehyporheic zone.

WORLD WATER SUPPLY AND


DISTRIBUTION

Food and water are two basic human needs. However, global coverage from
2002 indicate that, of every 10 people:
roughly 5 have a connection to a piped water supply at home
3 make use of some other sort of improved water supply, such as a
protected well or public standpipe;
2 are unserved;
In addition, 4 out of every 10 people live without improved sanitation.
AtEarth Summit 2002governments approved a Plan of Action to:
Halve by 2015 the proportion of people unable to reach or afford safe
drinking water. TheGlobal Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000
Report (GWSSAR)defines "Reasonable access" to water as at least 20 liters
per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the users home.
Halve the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation. The
GWSSR defines "Basic sanitation" as private or shared but not public
disposal systems that separate waste from human contact.

MICROCLIMATE

Microclimate refers to very localised weather


conditions around buildings or small
neighbourhood clusters.
Amicroclimateis a local atmospheric zone
where theclimatediffers from the surrounding
area.
Microclimatic phenomena are localised at the
scale of building or building cluster and include
air movement, precipitation, and temperature.

Building location and geometry can affect


microclimate especially in dense urban areas
where air movement can be distorted to form
wake and downwash phenomena that reduce the
liveability of external space.
Tall buildings create their own microclimate, both
by overshadowing large areas and by channelling
strong winds to ground level.Wind effectsaround
tall buildings are assessed as part of a
microclimate study.
The type of soil found in an area can also affect
microclimates. For example, soils heavy in clay
can act like pavement, moderating the near
ground temperature. On the other hand; if soil
has many air pockets, then the heat could be
trapped underneath the topsoil, resulting in the
increased possibility of frost at ground level.

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE


EARTHS SURFACE

Upland regions
Upland areas have a specific type of climate
that is notably different from the surrounding
lower levels. Temperature usually falls with
height at a rate of between 5 and 10 C per
1,000 metres, depending on the humidity of the
air.
Winter scene on Dartmoor, Devon

Coastal regions
The coastal climate is influenced by both the
land and sea between which the coast forms a
boundary. The thermal properties of water are such
that the sea maintains a relatively constant day to
day temperature compared with the land. The sea
also takes a long time to heat up during the
summer months and, conversely, a long time to
cool down during the winter.
Coastal microclimates display different
characteristics depending on where they occur on
the earths surface.

In the tropics
Sea temperatures change little and the
coastal climate depends on the effects caused
by the daytime heating and night-time cooling of
the land. This involves the development of a
breeze from off the sea (sea breeze) from late
morning and from off the land (land breeze)
during the night. The tropical climate is
dominated by convective showers and
thunderstorms that continue to form over the
sea but only develop over land during the day.
As a consequence, showers are less likely to fall
on coasts than either the sea or the land.

Forest
Tropical rainforests cover only about 6% of
Earths land surface, but it is believed they have a
significant effect on the transfer of water vapour to
the atmosphere. This is due to a process known as
evapotranspiration from the leaves of the forest
trees.

Temperate forest in
Germany

Urban regions
What is an urban microclimate? The table below
summarises some of the differences in various
weather elements in urban areas compared with
rural locations.

Comparisons of urban and rural


microclimates.

Urban winds
Tall buildings can significantly disturb airflows
over urban areas, and even a building 100 metres or
so high can deflect and slow down the faster upperatmosphere winds. The net result is that urban
areas, in general, are less windy than surrounding
rural areas.
However, the office quarter of larger
conurbations can be windier, with quite marked
gusts. This is the result of the increased surface
roughness that the urban skyline creates, leading to
strong vortices and eddies. In some cases, these
faster, turbulent winds are funnelled in between
buildings, producing a venturi effect, swirling up
litter and making walking along the pavements
quite difficul

WHY USE MICROCLIMATE


DESIGN?

A well-considered microclimatic strategy in the design of


buildings and urban space, help reduce exposure and to
contribute to the success of well used external space.
Careful attention to building form can ensure that potentially
harmful wind effects are mitigated around tall buildings.
The use of shelter belts, both natural and constructed reduce
exposure to the faces of buildings therefore reducing
excessive heat loss and protecting external finishes from
premature deterioration.
Microclimate is a critical design issue for both architecture
and landscape architecture disciplines and a shared
sensibility encourages effective transdiciplinary and
crossdisciplinary collaboration.

WHEN TO USE A
MICROCLIMATIC STRATEGY?

Designing for microclimate is relevant particularly


in dispersed, low density settlements.
Conversely, it is also vital to consider in dense
urban areas with a wide variety of building plan
form and height. Proposals that include external
amenity and recreational space are relevant.

How to use Microclimate Design?

Key points:
>Consider building form to protect external spaces including courtyard
configurations
>Tall buildings can benefit from an aerodynamic form including simple
measures such as smoothed off corners. Facades that are modelled reduce
the impact of downwash vortex effect.
>Planted windbreaks are most effective in reducing exposure to and
around buildings.
>Avoid katabatic (downhill) winds carrying high density air down a slope.
>Avoid placing a building either in frost pockets or alternatively on
exposed hilltop locations. Use topography to shelter a building.
>Avoid placing a building either in frost pockets or alternatively on
exposed hilltop locations. Use topography to shelter a building.
>Use techniques such as planted facades and earth berming to protect
buildings form wind exposure.

Rules of thumb
Guidance on the siting of buildings in
non urban locations.

Using building elements to protect


against exposure.

Design Procedure:

Step 1: There is no single design procedure to design


for microclimate. However, detailed knowledge of site,
context and surrounding environmental conditions is
critical. Designers should collect information regarding
topography, hydrology, existing planting, sun paths,
and the form and position of existing buildings. The
programme of the proposal should be clearly
developed to ascertain the importance of external
space for amenity and recreational use.
Step 2: Critical microclimatic effects should be
identified and prioritised. The architectural proposal
should respond to this.

Step 3: Responses vary widely depending on


location and programme. However, consideration
should be given to the use of building form to afford
protection for example in the formation of
courtyards, or openings to leeward side of
buildings. Topography and planting should be
considered to mitigate the effects of exposure
around buildings through the use of shelter belts
and earth berming and mounding.
Step 4: In dense urban areas, protected zones to be
formed by canopies at ground level. Building forms
should be designed to retard effects such as
downwash vortex and wake effects that can
accelerate windspeed. This can be achieved
through softening corners of buildings and
producing highly modelled facades.

Archaeolink by Edward Cullinan Architects is a good example of sheltering exposed


external space with groundworks.

Some straightforward principles for the design of


a simple building.

ORIENTATION

Design for orientation is a fundamental step to


ensure that buildings work with the passage of
the sun across the sky. Knowledge of sunpaths
for any site is fundamental in design building
facades to let in light and passive solar gain,
as well as reducing glare and overheating to
the building interior. It is important to
remember that the position of the sun in the
sky is dynamic, changing according to time of
day, time of year and the sites latitude.

WHY CONSIDER BUILDING


ORIENTATION?

Well-orientated buildings maximize day lighting


through building facades reducing the need for
artificial lighting.
Some typologies especially housing can be
zoned to ensure different functional uses receive
sunlight at different times of the day.
A careful strategy can also mitigate overheating
and glare when sunlight is excessive. You should
know how the sun interacts with your building in
high summer and the depths of winter.

LAYOUT AND ORIENTATION MUST BE


CONSIDERED FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE
DESIGN PROCESS

On this page:
Orientation for passive heating and cooling
Choosing a site
Building location
Layout
Overcoming obstacles
Orientation, layout and location on site will all
influence the amount of sun a building receives and
therefore its year-round temperatures and comfort.
Other considerations include access to views and
cooling breezes.


Orientation and layout will also be influenced
by topography, wind speed and direction, the
sites relationship with the street, the location
of shade elements such as trees and
neighboring buildings, and vehicle access and
parking.

ORIENTATION FOR PASSIVE


HEATING AND COOLING

For maximum solar gain, a building will be located,


oriented and designed to maximize window area
facing north (or within 20 degrees of north)
Orientation for solar gain will also depend on other
factors such as proximity to neighboring buildings
and trees that shade the site.
For solar gain, as well as considering location,
orientation and window size and placement, it is also
important to consider the thermal performance and
solar heat gain efficiency of the glazing unit itself

Important considerations of solar gain for


passive heating is important
Noise
Daylighting
protection from prevailing winds
access to breezes forventilation
shade to prevent summer overheating and glare
Views
Privacy
Access
indoor/outdoor flow
owners preferences
covenants and planning restrictions.


Passive cooling is more of a priority than
passive heating, the building should be
oriented to take advantage of prevailing breezes.
Effective solar orientation requires a good
understanding ofsun pathsat the site at
different times of the year.

CHOOSING A SITE

If a site is not suitable for passive design, some


elements of the passive design ethos may not work
in favour of efficiency and comfort.
The most important factor is the amount of sun the
site receives, as a site that receives little or no
sunlight cannot be used for passive solar design.
A flat site will generally have good sunlight access
anywhere, but a south-facing slope or a site
adjacent to a tall building or substantial planting
on the northern side, will not receive good solar
access.

AN IDEAL SITE FOR PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN WILL:

Be flat or north-sloping
Be free of obstructions to the north (and be
unlikely to be built out in future)
Be able to accommodate a building with a
relatively large north-facing wall or walls for
maximum solar gain (as well as north-facing
outdoor areas if those are wanted).
A site with north-south alignment is likely to
receive midday sun and with minimal
overshadowing, but may have limited morning
or evening sun. A site with east-west alignment
is more likely to be overshadowed to the north.

BUILDING LOCATION

A building should in general be located near the sites


southern boundary for maximum solar gain.
In most cases, this is likely to reduce the risk of shading from
neighboring properties, and also provide sunny outdoor space.
The best location for solar access will vary from site to site
depending on site shape, orientation and topography; and
shading from trees and neighboring buildings (or future
buildings).
Other factors such as views, wind, topography, and the
location of trees and neighboring buildings will also influence
a buildings location on the site.
In areas where cooling is more of a priority than heating,
factors such as access to breezes might be more important
than solar access.

LAYOUT

Rooms and outdoor spaces should be located


to maximize comfort during use. In general,
this means living areas and outdoor spaces
facing north, and service areas such as
garages, laundries and bathrooms to the
south.

OVERCOMING OBSTACLES

It is often not possible to obtain the ideal


building orientation on a site (particularly in
urban areas) and compromise will be
necessary for example, where the view is to
the south, the site has a south-facing slope,
there is a source of noise on the north side, or
the view and sun face into strong prevailing
winds.

HOW TO DESIGN FOR


BUILDING ORIENTATION?

KEY POINTS:
In the past the passage of the sun across the
sky was plotted with pre printed sunpath
diagrams for specific latitudes. Thankfully CAD
packages can do this for you. Specifically Google
SketchUp is effective in setting up a model in
any global location and then able to simulate a
sunpath across a building.
Google SketchUp model showing building
design orientated to maximise south light.
John Brennan


Housing in temperate regions can benefit from
admitting the sun into the building interior.
Openings should be primarily orientated
southwards, consider the use of
conservatories and buffer spaces. Kitchens are
better facing east, living rooms to the south
and west. Bedrooms are often better to the
north to avoid light disturbance.
Simple criteria for the organisation of
spaces in housing to maximise positive
effects of orientation. John Brennan

Office buildings typically are about the


reduction of excessive solar gain and glare.
This is because of a greater preponderance of
glazed facades and also higher internal gains
from people, computers etc. Use glazing due
south sparingly and incorporate shading
devices.

Knowledge of building orientation can prioritise where to


provide protection for glazed facades. Scottish National
Heritage building Inverness. Architects: Keppie. John
Brennan

Design Procedure:

Step 1:
There is no single design procedure to design for
orientation. However, you need to model your proposal in a
package such as Google SketchUp.
Step 2:
Ensure the building is properly placed on its site in relation
to north and the location either geographically or in terms of
latitude or longitude is entered.
Step 3:
Use a sun or shadow tool to model the building at seasonal
extremities.
Step 4: Be conservative in the use of glazing to heavily
exposed sides.

Step 5:
Model the use of solar shading devices.

Step 6:
You can quantify solar gain coming through
glazing over a year using in a domestic context,
really simple SAP tools.
Other packages such as Autodesk Ecotect and IES
VE-ware can model solar gain and possible
overheating of a building model.
Step 7:
Remember orientation is about protection and
mitigation of sunlight in buildings as well as
accommodating solar gain.