Cell Division

Grade 11 University Biology Ms. Grant

Cell Division- Outline
Terminology  The Cell Cycle- Mitosis  Cloning  Cancer  Meiosis  Reproduction and Cell Division  Abnormal Meiosis

Cell Division- Terminology
Parent Cell: The cell that divides  Daughter Cells: The new cells that are created (no gender)  Mitosis: Equal division of the genetic material during cell division  Cytokinesis: Equal division of the cytoplasm during cell division

The cell cycle- Interphase

Interphase: When the cells grows, repairs itself and goes about it’s daily activities The cell spends most of it’s time in interphase


Cell Cycle- Interphase

The genetic material is not condensed, but in thin strands called chromatin. Genetic material duplicates so there are 2 copies of each chromosome


Cell Cycle- Interphase

The paired chromosomes (sister chromatids) are joined by a centromere


Cell Cycle- Prophase
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First phase of mitosis Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Chromosomes are visible under a microscope


Cell Cycle- Prophase


In animal cells, centrioles move towards opposite poles Centrioles provide a place of attachment for spindle fibres In plant cells, spindle fibres still exist, but connect to the cell wall

Cell Cycle- Prophase

Spindle fibres guide the chromosomes to the poles Nuclear membrane disappears to allow genetic material to be separated


Cell Cycle- Metaphase
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2nd phase of mitosis Chromosomes move toward the centre of the cell called the equalateral plate


Cell Cycle- Metaphase

Spindle fibres are attached to centromeres Chromatids can become tangled in this phase


Cell Cycle- Anaphase
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3rd phase of mitosis Sister chromatids split into individual chromosomes and move towards the poles If all goes well, each pole should have the same number of chromosomes


Cell Cycle- Telophase

Last phase of cell division Chromosomes have reached the poles and cell begins to lengthen Spindle fibres dissolve and nuclear membrane begins to reappear


Cell Cycle- Cytokinesis
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Cytoplasm divides Membrane pinches in the middle and divides into two separate cells