Cell Division

Grade 11 University Biology Ms. Grant

Cell Division- Outline
Terminology  The Cell Cycle- Mitosis  Cloning  Cancer  Meiosis  Reproduction and Cell Division  Abnormal Meiosis

Cell Division- Terminology
Parent Cell: The cell that divides  Daughter Cells: The new cells that are created (no gender)  Mitosis: Equal division of the genetic material during cell division  Cytokinesis: Equal division of the cytoplasm during cell division

The cell cycle- Interphase

Interphase: When the cells grows, repairs itself and goes about it’s daily activities The cell spends most of it’s time in interphase

http://www.fundp.ac.be/sciences/biologie/bio2001/bioscope/1883_vanbeneden/interphase.jpg

Cell Cycle- Interphase

The genetic material is not condensed, but in thin strands called chromatin. Genetic material duplicates so there are 2 copies of each chromosome

http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/2003/imperial_Burgoine/replication.jpg

Cell Cycle- Interphase

The paired chromosomes (sister chromatids) are joined by a centromere

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/HUMAN.gif

Cell Cycle- Prophase
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First phase of mitosis Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Chromosomes are visible under a microscope

http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/prophase.jpg

Cell Cycle- Prophase

http://sst.nsu.edu/bio110/exams/Prophase_Quiz.jpg

In animal cells, centrioles move towards opposite poles Centrioles provide a place of attachment for spindle fibres In plant cells, spindle fibres still exist, but connect to the cell wall

Cell Cycle- Prophase

Spindle fibres guide the chromosomes to the poles Nuclear membrane disappears to allow genetic material to be separated

http://tecfa.unige.ch/staf/staf-e/resin/staf15/ex3/CELL3/prophase.gif

Cell Cycle- Metaphase
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2nd phase of mitosis Chromosomes move toward the centre of the cell called the equalateral plate

http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/jonesc/pictures/metaphase.jpg

Cell Cycle- Metaphase

Spindle fibres are attached to centromeres Chromatids can become tangled in this phase

http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/randerson/Lynn's%20Bioslides/86.jpg

Cell Cycle- Anaphase
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3rd phase of mitosis Sister chromatids split into individual chromosomes and move towards the poles If all goes well, each pole should have the same number of chromosomes

http://www.ecok.edu/repository/unmanaged_content/biology/russo/Anaphase.JPG

Cell Cycle- Telophase

Last phase of cell division Chromosomes have reached the poles and cell begins to lengthen Spindle fibres dissolve and nuclear membrane begins to reappear

http://iws.ccccd.edu/jbeck/CellDivision%20web/Telophase.JPG

Cell Cycle- Cytokinesis
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Cytoplasm divides Membrane pinches in the middle and divides into two separate cells

http://www.indigo.com/software/gphpcd/em21.jpg

http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/latest/dna1/src/images/mitosis_withtext.gif