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Wireless Power Transmission

Presented by
Zaka Ullah UW-11-EE-BSc-06
Ali Faraz Qayyum UW-11-EE-BSc-46

OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION
HISTORY
TYPES OF WPT
Atmospheric conduction method
Electrodynamic induction method

Advantages and disadvantage


Applications
Conclusion
References
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INTRODUCTION

One of the major issues in power system is the losses


occurring during the transmission and distribution of
electrical power.
The percentage of loss of power during transmission and
distribution is approximated as 26%.
The main reason for power loss during transmission and
distribution is the resistance of wires used in grid.
According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), Indias
electricity grid has the highest transmission and
distribution losses in the world a whopping 27-40%.
Tesla has proposed methods of transmission of electricity
using electromagnetic induction.

DEFINITION
As the word wireless means without wire.
Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the
transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an
electric load without interconnecting man made
conductors.

Wireless transmission is useful in cases where


interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous or
impossible.

HISTORY
Sir NICOLAI TESLA was the first one to propose and research the idea of
wireless transmission in 1899, since than many scholars and scientists
have been working to make his dream a reality.
1899: Tesla continues wireless power transmission research in
Colorado Springs and writes, "the inferiority of the induction
method would appear immense as compared with
thedisturbed charge of ground and air method
1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring
possibilities of microwave power transmission
2009: Sony shows a wireless electrodynamics-induction powered TV
set, 60 W over 50 cm

METHODS
Different methods of transmission proposed by
different scientist and scholars are:
1. Atmospheric conduction method of Tesla
2. Electrodynamic induction method:
Microwave method
Laser method

In

ATMOSPHERIC CONDUCTION
METHOD
1899 Sir NICOLAI TESLA and HEINRICH HERTZ

powered a fluorescent lamp keeping it 25 miles away


from source without using wire. Wireless power
transmission experiments at WARDEN CLYFFE High
frequency current, of a Tesla coil, could light lamps
filled with gas (like neon). In this method a closed
circuit

is

made

using

transmitter,

ionized

path

between upper atmosphere and transmitter, second


ionized path connecting receiver. The circuit back to
the transmitter is completed through the earth .

ATMOSPHERIC
CONDUCTION METHOD
High potential is maintained at transmitter and
receiver end as well. A high potential transmitter
transmits an electromotive impulse through the
ionized path to the upper atmosphere where it ionizes
the air, and this air between the transmitter and
receiver would conduct like a neon tube .

LIMITATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC
CONDUCTION METHOD
Economically challenging.
Periodic changes in atmospheric condition.

Maintaining high tower potential every time.

ELECTRODYNAMIC INDUCTION
METHOD
We bring electromagnetic radiation into
practice, which uses far field technique in order
to achieve range into kilos, which includes two
techniques:
LASERS
MICROWAVE

LASER
LASER is highly directional, coherent
TRANSMISSION
Not dispersed for very long

But, gets attenuated when it propagates through


atmosphere
Simple receiver
Photovoltaic cell

Cost-efficient

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LASER
METHOD
In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible
region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm),
power can be transmitted by converting electricity into
a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver.
This mechanism is generally known as "power beaming"
because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert
it to usable electrical energy.
OPTICAL FIBRE

TRANSFORMER

LASER

CURRENT

CURRENT

MICROWAVE
Power transmission via radio waves can be made more
directional,
allowing longer distance power beaming, with
METHOD

shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically


in the microwave range. A rectenna may be used to convert
the microwave energy back into electricity. Rectenna
conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized.
Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for
the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power
satellites to Earth.
The principle of Evanescent Wave Coupling extends the
principle of Electromagnetic induction.

APPLICATIONS
Near-field energy transfer
Electric automobile charging
Static and moving

Consumer electronics
Industrial purposes
Harsh environment

Far-field energy transfer


Solar Power Satellites
Energy to remote areas
Can broadcast energy globally (in future)
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ADVANTAGES
Efficient
Easy
Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated
Low maintenance cost
More effective when the transmitting and
receiving points are along a line-of-sight
Can reach the places which are remote

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DISADVANTAGES
When microwaves are used, interference may
arise
When LASERS are used, conversion is inefficient
due to absorption losses.
It is radioactive in nature
Distance constraint , initial cost is high.
Field strength has to be under safety levels
High frequency signals should be supplied for
air ionization which is not feasible.

CONCLUSION
Transmission without wires- a reality
Efficient
Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost
Better than conventional wired transfer
Energy crisis can be decreased
Low loss
In near future, world will be completely
wireless
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REFERENCES
S. Sheik Mohammed, K. Ramasamy, T. Shanmuganantham, Wireless
power transmission a next generation power transmission system,
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887) (Volume 1
No. 13)
Peter Vaessen, Wireless Power Transmission, Leonardo Energy,
September 2009
C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow, Wireless
Power Transmission and Charging Pad
David Schneider, Electrons unplugged, IEEE Spectrum, May 2010
Shahrzad Jalali Mazlouman, Alireza Mahanfar, Bozena Kaminska, Midrange Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive Resonance for Wireless
Sensors
Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu, Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng, Simulation and
Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic
Resonances, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC),
September 3-5, 2008
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