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Digital Meters - Power

Quality Monitoring and


Analysis
John Levine
Mar 21, 2006

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Contents

Effects of power quality


Power Quality definitions revisited
What is needed for PQ monitoring ?
GE Multilins solution
o PQMII
o EPM9000 series
Summary

Monitor and Analyze Power Disturbances, Disruptions & H


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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ is a Business Problem
Power Quality issues cause business
problems such as:
Lost productivity, idle people and equipment
Lost orders, good will, customers and profits
Lost transactions and orders not being
processed
Revenue and accounting problems
Customer and/or management dissatisfaction
Overtime required to make up for lost work
time

According to Electric Light and Power Magazine, 30 to


40 Percent of All Business Downtime Is Related to
Power Quality Problems.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Is Power Quality Such a Big


Problem?

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Why PQ is such a Big Problem?


The sensitivity of todays electronic equipment
makes it susceptible to power disturbances
For some devices, a momentary disturbance can
cause
o scrambled data
o interrupted communications
o a frozen mouse
o system crashes and equipment failure

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems are Expensive


Berkeley Lab Study Estimates $80 Billion
Annual Cost of Power Interruptions
Research News, Berkeley Lab, February 2, 2005
$50 billon per year in the USA is lost as a
results of power quality breakdowns .
Bank of America Report
A manufacturing company lost more than
$3 million one day last summer in Silicon
Valley when the lights went out. New
York Times January 2000
A voltage sag in a paper mill can waste a
whole day of production - $250,000 loss
Business Week, June 17,, 1996
Half of all computer problems and onethird of all data loss can be traced back to
the power line Contingency Planning
Research, LAN Times

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Who is Affected?
High Cost Facilities
o Semiconductor plants
o Pharmaceuticals
o Data centers
Medium Cost Facilities
oAutomotive
manufacturing
oGlass plants
oPlastics & Chemicals
oTextiles

Lost production
Scrap
Costs to restart
Labor costs
Equipment damage and repair
Other costs

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Short Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Instantaneous Sag

0.5 30 cycles

Momentary Sag

30 cycles 3
sec

Temporary Sag

3 sec 1 min

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Short Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Instantaneous Sag

0.5 30 cycles

Momentary Sag

30 cycles 3
sec.

Temporary Sag

3 sec 1 min.

Instantaneous Swell

0.5 30 cycles

Momentary Swell

30 cycles 3
sec.

Temporary Swell

3 sec 1 min.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Short Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Instantaneous Sag

0.5 30 cycles

Momentary Sag

30 cycles 3
sec.

Temporary Sag

3 sec 1 min.

Instantaneous Swell

0.5 30 cycles

Momentary Swell

30 cycles 3
sec.

Temporary Swell

3 sec 1 min.

Momentary
Interruptions

0.5 30 cycles

Temporary
Interruptions

30 cycles 3
sec.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Long Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Sustained
interruptions

> 1 min

Under voltages

> 1 min

Over voltages

> 1 min

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Long Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Sustained
interruptions

> 1 min

Under voltages

> 1 min

Over voltages

> 1 min

Voltage imbalance

Steady state

Waveform
Distortion

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Definitions Revisited
IEEE Categories
Std 1159-1995
Long Duration
Variations

Typical
Duration

Sustained
interruptions

> 1 min

Under voltages

> 1 min

Over voltages

> 1 min

Voltage imbalance

Steady state

Waveform
Distortion
DC offset

Steady state

Harmonics

Steady state

Inter harmonics

Steady state

For Electric Utilities Control of Voltage and Prevention of


Outages is Power Quality
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Sources of PQ Problems
Utility Sources
Lightning
PF Correction Equipment
Faults
Switching

Internal Sources
Individual Loads Lighting, Elevators,
Coolers, HVAC
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
Variable Frequency Drives
Battery Chargers
Large Motors During Startup
Electronic Dimming Systems
Lighting Ballasts (esp. Electronic)
Arc Welders, and Other Arc Devices
Medical Equipment, e.g. MRIs and X-Ray
Machines
Office Equipment and Computers
Wiring

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems and Possible


Causes
Typical problems

Disturbance Type

Possible Causes

Overheated neutral
Intermittent lock-ups
Frequency deviations

Steady-state

Shared neutrals
Improper or inadequate
wiring
High source impedance
SCR/Rectifiers and notching
Harmonics

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems and Possible


Causes
Typical problems

Disturbance Type

Possible Causes

Overheated neutral
Intermittent lock-ups
Frequency deviations

Steady-state

Shared neutrals
Improper or inadequate
wiring
High source impedance
SCR/Rectifiers and notching
Harmonics

Interruption
Garbled data
Random increase in harmonics
levels

Utility faults
Inrush currents
Inadequate wiring

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems and Possible


Causes
Typical problems

Disturbance Type

Possible Causes

Overheated neutral
Intermittent lock-ups
Frequency deviations

Steady-state

Shared neutrals
Improper or inadequate
wiring
High source impedance
SCR/Rectifiers and notching
Harmonics

Interruption
Garbled data
Random increase in harmonics
levels
Intermittent lock-ups
Lights flicker
Garbled data

Utility faults
Inrush currents
Inadequate wiring
Sags/Swell

Source voltage variations


Inrush/surge currents
Inadequate wiring

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems and Possible


Causes
Typical problems

Disturbance Type

Possible Causes

Overheated neutral
Intermittent lock-ups
Frequency deviations

Steady-state

Shared neutrals
Improper or inadequate
wiring
High source impedance
SCR/Rectifiers and notching
Harmonics

Interruption
Garbled data
Random increase in harmonics
levels

Utility faults
Inrush currents
Inadequate wiring

Intermittent lock-ups
Lights flicker
Garbled data

Sags/Swell

Source voltage variations


Inrush/surge currents
Inadequate wiring

Component failure
Dielectric breakdown
Lock-ups
Garbled data
Wavy CRTs

Impulses
EMI/RFI

Lightning
Load switching
Capacitor switching
Static discharge
Hand-held radios
Loose wiring/arcing

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Problems and Possible


Causes
Typical problems

Disturbance Type

Possible Causes

Overheated neutral
Intermittent lock-ups
Frequency deviations

Steady-state

Shared neutrals
Improper or inadequate
wiring
High source impedance
SCR/Rectifiers and notching
Harmonics

Interruption
Garbled data
Random increase in harmonics
levels

Utility faults
Inrush currents
Inadequate wiring

Intermittent lock-ups
Lights flicker
Garbled data

Sags/Swell

Source voltage variations


Inrush/surge currents
Inadequate wiring

Component failure
Dielectric breakdown
Lock-ups
Garbled data
Wavy CRTs

Impulses
EMI/RFI

Lightning
Load switching
Capacitor switching
Static discharge
Hand-held radios
Loose wiring/arcing

Overheated transformers and


motors
Voltage and current distortions
Garbled data
Lock-ups

Harmonics

Electronic loads
SCR/rectifier
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Major PQ Problems
Outages,
6%
Spikes, 7%

Swells,

Sags, 56%

31%
Source: EPRI, 1994

Swells

Sags (Dips)

System fault conditions

Associated with system faults

Switching on a large capacitor bank

Switching of heavy loads

Switching off a large load

Starting of large motors

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Cost of Voltage Sags


Textile Industry
Plastics Industry
Glass Industry
Process Industry
Semiconductors
$1k

$10
$100k
Source: EPRI The Economics
k of Custom Power, IEEE T&D Show 2003

$1M

$10
M

Losses per Voltage Sag Event


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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Cost of Momentary Outages

Momentary Outages
create problems
when computers and
clocks reset,
equipment stalls, and
work stops.

Category
Industrial
Semiconductor Manufacturing
Electronics
Automobile Manufacturing
Pharmaceutical
Glass
Rubber and Plastics
Petrochemical
Food Processing
Textile
Metal Fabrication
Mining
Paper
Printing(Newspapers)

Cost of Momentary Interuption


($/kW Demand)
Minimum Maximum

Commercial
Hospitals, banks, civil service
Communications, information processing
Resturants, bars, hotels
Commercial shops

$20.0
$8.0
$5.0
$5.0
$4.0
$3.0
$3.0
$3.0
$2.0
$2.0
$2.0
$1.5
$1.0

$60.0
$12.0
$7.5
$50.0
$6.0
$4.5
$5.0
$5.0
$4.0
$4.0
$4.0
$2.5
$2.0

$2.0
$1.0
$0.5
$0.1

$3.0
$10.0
$1.0
$0.5

Source: EPRI The Economics of Custom Power, IEEE T&D 2003

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

High Speed Waveform Capture

High Speed Waveform Capture Is the Most Important PQ


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Troubleshooting Tool
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Benefits of Continuous PQ
Power Quality monitoring provides a
Monitoring
continuous Health Check of a facilitys
power system for example:
o

Harmonic interaction between loads


and power conditioning equipment
spotted

High Inrush currents from


equipment startup detected

o
Transients
switching
It provides
data tofrom
see, load
diagnose
and are
seen problems like squeaky
avert looming
brakes on a car
o

Trends can be detected

JIT equipment maintenance


programs can be established

It acts like a Black Box on an airplane to


tell you what, when, and where a Power
Quality event occurred to prevent it
from Continuous
reoccurring
PQ Monitoring Detects,

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Records,
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
and Leads to the Prevention of PQ Problems Jan 28,
2015

What is needed for PQ


Monitoring?
PQ Monitors must detect and
record the 7 types of PQ
problems

Plus they must

Be easy to use
Be Suitable for continuously
Transients
monitoring indoors and
Interruptions
outdoors
Sag/Under Voltage
Interface with standard PQ
Swell/Over Voltage
analysis SoftwarePQDif
Waveform Distortion
format
Voltage Fluctuations
Be fast enough to capture high
Frequency Variations
speed events that produce
equipment problems
Have enough storage to save
These include Flicker and
Compliance to ITI(CBEMA), IEEE
the waveforms you need
and ISO Standards
Have PQ analysis tools that
produce
usable,
actionable
ITI: Information Technology Industry Council (Computer & Business Equipment
Manufacturers
Association)
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recommendations GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Real Time Field Recorded Events


Source: AGA Brazil
Meter: EPM9650

Period: Jan 2005


Dec 2005

Continuous Monitoring of the Station for PQ Prob


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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

PQ Meter ITI Capture

ITI Acceptable Power


Disturbance Envelope
Damage Inducing Voltage
Surges as Recorded

Equipment Interrupting
Voltage Sags as Recorded

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ITI: Information Technology Industry Council (Computer & Business Equipment Manufacturers Association)
GE Consumer & Industrial

Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Instantaneous Sag Event

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Instantaneous Swell Event

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Harmonic & Interharmonic


Spectrum

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Flicker Recording

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Flicker Recording

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Summary
GE Multilin provides the necessary tools for a successful PQ
disturbance analysis and allows users to take remedial actions

Symptoms
Feels the pulse of the
power system network
Accurate Measurement
Examinations

to determine actual
state High resolution
recordings for longer
Diagnosis
durations
GE Communicator
software
Remedy
Remedial actions

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015

Finally
If You Cant Measure it You Cant
Manage it
If You Can Measure it You Can
Manage it

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Jan 28, 2015