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and Project Delivery
ACT 380

Exposure to the different types of
construction contracts, the number
of contracts, the method of
contractor selection and the basis for
contractor payment.

Contract Defined
An agreement between two or more
parties representing a promise to be
performed for consideration

Necessary Parts of a Typical

Construction Contract
O Parties identified
O Parties make promises that constitute

an offer
O Both parties sign the contract
O Both parties receive consideration:

O Contractor payment for work done

O Owner use of the completed project

O Parties of the contract must have the

LEGAL AUTHORITY to negotiate a


O Agreement between the OWNER and

CONTRACTOR is the primary

construction contract
O There are other contractual
relationships which exist

Construction Agreement
O Agreement legal, binding, written

document signed by owner &

O Defines the relationships and
obligations that exist
O By reference it incorporates ALL

Standard Forms
O AIA Document A101
O EJCDC Document 1910-8-A-1

Advantages to Using Standard

Agreement FormsDisadvantages if
Modified Forms Used
O Advantages
O Familiarity of the forms
O Legal precedents interpreting the

O Uniformity of terminology
O Disadvantages

O Modifications warrant care that all

references are coordinated (change in one

part of the form may require changes in
several locations)
O Seek legal counsel

Conditions of the
O Define basic rights, responsibilities,

and relationships of the parties

involved in the construction process
in greater detail than the agreement

Design & Construction

O Owner may be an individual or an

organization; initiates the project and

secures funding for the design,
construction and operation of the
completed project
O Contractor agrees to build the
project; may enter into sub-contracts
O A/E develops project designs and
prepare construction documents;
consultants may include: structural,
civil, mechanical, electrical,
acoustical, & environmental engineers
and landscape architects, interior
designers, and hardware specialists

Methods of Contractor
O Competitive Bidding
O Direct Selection


Competitive Bidding
O Objective is to ensure that the cost of

the project is reasonable and consistent

with existing conditions in industry
O Publicly funded projects owner
required to select lowest bidder
O Private projects owner may also
consider the bidders qualifications,
experience, financial condition, and
performance history

Direct Selection
O Owner, with advice from the A/E

selects contractor total price and

method of payment is then
O This method is generally NOT
allowed for public projects


3 Decisions Made in
Determining Kind of Contract
O Number of contracts
O Contract type
O Basis of payment


Number of Contracts
O Single Prime Contract most common,

uses competitive bidding (pg 3.12; fig 3.3C) owner has contract w/ A/E & contractor;
but A/E & contractor do NOT have contract
O Multiple Prime Contract Owner
divides the work among several contractors
& has separate contract w/ each of them.
(pg 3.13; fig 3.3-D) [e.g. paving, site work,
foundations, landscaping, painting] Often
used in FAST TRACK projects when
construction on parts of the project is
started prior to all of the design elements of
the project being completed


Project Delivery Method

O Design-Bid-Build
O Design-Negotiate-Build
O Construction Management
O Design-Build
O Owner-Build
O Construction Subcontracts
O Total Project Commissioning


O Traditional method of project delivery
O Typically uses competitive bidding
O Considerations
O Project funding
O Owners capacity
O Cost
O Extent of work
O Time priorities

O See Figure 3.4-A on page 3.16


O Similar to the Design-Bid-Build contract

but only ONE contractor involved in

developing costs and negotiating a
contract to construct the project
O Primary considerations are
construction excellence and time
(project costs not subject to
competitive bidding process)
O See figure 3.4-B on page 3.19

O May have either single or multiple

prime contracts
O Construction manager is employed
by the owner to oversee and
administer the project (may or may
not actually perform any of the
construction work)
O See pg 3.24; figs. 3.4-C & 3.4-D

Project Management
O Similar to construction management but

also includes coordination of the design

& planning stages of the project
O Large projects overseas have been
successful using this
O Projects involving multiple structures &
extensive site improvements often
require this type of supervision; complex
projects such as industrial & process
engineering plants use this type of

O Owner contracts w/ a single entity to

design as well as build the project

O Turnkey an extended design-build
contract in which the selection,
procurement, and installation of all
furnishings, furniture, and equipment
is also included
O See pg 3.30; fig 3.4-E

O This type of contract is usually seen

with large-scale developers

O Only construction contracts needed
are between the owner and various
O See pg 3.34; fig. 3.4-F


O Usually involves a contract between

the contractor and subcontractors

and material suppliers
O May be verbalbest if written


Total Project Commissioning

O Defined by ASHRAE as a method to

improve the delivery of a process.

O Focus is on QUALITY
O Makes sure that all components of a
building are planned, installed, and
maintained according to an owners


3 Types of Basis of
O Stipulated (Lump) Sum
O Unit Price
O Cost-Plus Fee


Stipulated Sum
O Simplest method used
O States that the contract

requirements will be completed for a

given amount of money


Unit Price
O Used when the extent of work or

actual quantities can not be

determined when bids are made
(earthwork is such an example)
O Many civil engineering projects use
unit price type of payment
O With unit price, the owner pays for
exactly what is documented as done
after the work has been completed

Cost-Plus Fee
O Contractor paid for actual cost of labor

PLUS a fee for overhead and profit

O Fee may be a percentage of the labor &
material cost or a fixed amount
O Cost-Plus Fee agreements may also
include incentives for early completion
O It is reasonable for the owner to require
a guaranteed maximum price to
ensure that the total project cost will not
exceed a given amount