This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Managerial decisions in today's turbulent business environment are characterised by uncertainty, multiple objectives and complexity. If there is one quality that distinguishes a good manager from a poor one, it is decisiveness and strong communication. A person in managerial position who is poor in decision making is fit to be called only an administrator and not a manager. The theory about the decision making process is an interesting subject. Every manager is in fact some kind of decision maker and usually the performance is formed by (the results of) the choices made (Vroom, 1973). Decisions are made all the time, although sometimes unconsciously. It is a subject that is relevant for many business areas and, in this situation, it can be used to define the optimal way of defining new policies concerning forecasting, cost and price management.
The decision making process normally involves the following stages: 1) Defining the problem /issues / situations / challenges which calls for a decision making 2) Collecting relevant facts (through effective communicating), figures and statistics to facilitate and support decision making process 3) Identifying the various alternatives of choice 4) seeking opinions and alternative view points from "people who know" and "people who matter". 5) Pondering over the issues peacefully (where time permits) and 6) Deciding on the best choice or a couple of best courses of action.
a. Identifying Potential Problems and Opportunities In some cases, it is difficult to identify the problems and opportunities. For example, what is causing the different projects within the organization to go consistently over budget in relation to the different specific corrective actions that were undertaken? b. Assessing Business Situation Before attempting to make a decision, it is important to assess the business environment and define the constraints related to the problem. The assessment may also include an analysis of markets, competition, prices, or anything that can be related to the problem or opportunity. c. Determining Success Criteria Very often project managers have to make decisions based on multiple criteria. d. Identifying Uncertainties Understanding of uncertainties is the key to the decision analysis process. . e. Generating Alternatives It is vital to identify what cannot be changed, or project constraints for making the particular decision analysis.
Making Decisions in Organizations
High Managerial Control Employee Empowerment High
Centralized Decentralized Decision Decision Making Making
Low Employee Empowerment Managerial Control Low
Problem solving approach
• Information is key to managerial decision making. Therefore collect information through effective communication. • Optimizing decision making process • Quantitative techniques for decision making • Decision tree • Consistency in decision making, problem solving skills
What Is An Organization?
An organization is a group of individuals who work together toward common goals.
EFFECTIVENESS Long term measure of how well an organization achieves its objectives EFFICIENCY Short term measure of how well an organization uses it resources GOAL A desired future states that contributes to the fulfillment of the organization's mission
MISSION = Reason for existence
Effectiveness & Efficiency
Effectiveness is achieved when the organization pursues appropriate goals. This means “doing the right thing.” Efficiency is achieved by using fewer inputs (e.g., people, money) to generate a given output. This means “doing things right.”
Simple (1 person) Complex (1,000’s of persons)
How does the need for a well-defined structure change as the size of the organization increases?
The Elements Organizing
– Deciding how to best group organizational activities and resources.
• Organization Structure
– The set of building blocks that can be used to configure an organization.
Organization Structure & Design
• Organization structure – the pattern and groups of jobs in an organization • Organizational Design - individuals and groups are arranged in an organization with respect to the tasks they perform. It is the management decisions and actions that result in a specific organization structure
The Elements of Org Structure
• Organization design
– A process in which managers develop or change their organization’s structure.
• Work specialization
– A component of organization structure that involves having each discrete step of a job done by a different individual rather than having one individual do the whole job.
Organizational Structure: Control
• Chain of command
– The continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom.
• Unity of Command
– The management principle that no person should report to more than one boss.
• Span of control
– The number of subordinates a manager can direct efficiently and effectively.
Organizational Structure: Control (cont’d)
– The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect them to be obeyed.
– An individual’s capacity to influence decisions.
– An obligation to perform assigned activities.
Organizational Design Decisions
1. Managers decide how to divide the overall task into successively smaller jobs 2. Managers decide the bases by which to group the jobs 3. Managers decide the appropriate size of the group reporting to each superior 4. Managers distribute authority among the jobs
• Few employees reporting directly to one person (owner)
•Organizes employees around skills or other resources (marketing, production) •Create subordinate goals
Functional Organizational Structure
Organizes employees around outputs, clients, or geographic areas
Project-Based Matrix Structure
Employees are temporarily assigned to a specific project team and have a permanent functional unit
President Engineering Manager Project A Manager Project B Manager Project C Manager Marketing Manager Software Manager
Tall Versus Flat Organizations
There is no permanent organization chart for the world. . . . It is of supreme importance to be ready at all times to take advantage of new opportunities.
—Robert C. Goizueta, (Former) Chairman and Ceo, Coca-Cola Company © 2006 Prentice Hall
Simple, International Division
CEO International Division
Example: Levi Strauss, Inc.
Extension of Geographical Departmentalization
CEO North American operations
Example: Ford Motor Company, Coca Cola
Extension of Product Departmentalization
CEO Product Manager A Product Manager B Product Manager C North America
Example: Unilever, NV, FedEx, H.J. Heinz
Extension of Multi-Divisional (SBU) Departmentalization
CEO SBU A US SBU B Germany SBU C Japan SBU D France SBU E Taiwan
Examples: General Electric, BOC, Ltd.
Global Matrix Design
Example: N.V. Phillips
Global Geographic Structure
© 2006 Prentice Hall 8-30
Organizational Change and Design
© 2006 Prentice Hall
Scope of Authority
Responsibility and Authority
Making a pin (nail) requires 18 tasks
1 worker doing all 18 tasks might make 20 pins (nails) a day. 20 workers = (20 x 20) = 400 pins ______________________________
Adam Smith’s Example of Job Specialization
20 workers make 100,000 pins a day. 1 worker = 5,000 pins 20 pins vs. 5,000 pins per worker
Alternatives to Specialization
• Job Rotation
– Systematically moving employees from one job to another in an attempt to reduce employee boredom.
• Job Enlargement
– An increase in the total number of tasks workers perform.
• Job Enrichment
– Increasing both the number of tasks the worker does and the control the worker has over the job.
Job design refers to how organizations define and structure jobs Job Design is the function of specifying the work activities of an individual or group in an organizational setting. The objective of job design is to develop jobs that meet the requirements of the organization and its technology and that satisfy the jobholder’s personal and individual requirements.
• Job Design
– The determination of an individual’s workrelated responsibilities.
• Job Specialization (Division of Labor)
– The degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller component parts.
Job Design Decisions
Mental and physical characteristics of the work force
Geographic locale of the organization; location of work areas
Organizational rationale for the job; objectives and motivation of the worker
Tasks to be performed
Time of day; time of occurrence in the work flow
Method of performance and motivation
Ultimate Job Structure
Job Design Strategies
• Job simplification - breaks work down into its simplest form and standardizes each task. • Job enlargement (horizontal job loading) - adds more tasks to a job to broaden its scope. • Job rotation - cross-trains workers so they can move from one job in a company to others, giving them a greater number and variety of tasks to perform. Often used with a skill-based pay system.
Job Design Strategies
• Job enrichment (vertical job loading) - builds motivators into a job by increasing the planning, decision making, organizing and controlling functions (which traditionally were managerial tasks). • Five core characteristics:
– – – – – Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Enriched Job
Job Design Strategies
• Flextime - an arrangement under which employees build their work schedules around a set of “core hours” – such as 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. – but have flexibility about when they start and stop work. • Job sharing - a work arrangement in which two or more people share a single full-time job.
Job Design Strategies
• Flexplace - a work arrangement in which employees work at a place other than the traditional office, such as a satellite branch closer to their homes or, in some cases, at home. • Telecommuting - an arrangement in which employers have employees working from their homes use modern communications equipment to hook up to their workplaces.
Important Hiring Decisions
• • • • • Look inside the company first Encourage employee referrals Make employment ads stand out Use the Internet as a recruiting tool Recruit on campus
How To Avoid Hiring Mistakes
• Forge relationships with schools and other sources of workers • Consider using offbeat recruiting techniques • Offer what workers want
Hiring the Right Employees
• Conduct a job analysis and create practical job descriptions and job specifications • Plan an effective interview • Conduct the interview • Check references
Conducting a Job Analysis
• Create a job description - a written statement of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and materials and equipment used in a job. • Create a job specification - written statement of the qualifications and characteristics needed for a job, stated in such terms as education, skills, and experience. • See sample job description from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles for a worm picker.
Advantages to the Organization
Job - Person Fit Increased Performance Maximise Internal Resources Greater Job Satisfaction Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover
Employees are allocated job activities based on individual competencies and realistic job requirements. Performance increases as employees and jobs are match to maximize the resources of the organization. Internal resources are allocated in the most efficient and effective manner to generate the maximum return for capital investment for the organization. Leads to increased job satisfaction and thereby results in low employee turnover and high productivity.
Job Design Challenge Motivate Workers
• • • • Empowerment Job design Rewards and compensation Feedback
Four Vital Tasks of a Leader
1. Hire the right employees and constantly improve their skills. 2. Build an organizational culture and structure that enable the company to reach its potential. 3. Motivate workers to higher levels of performance. 4. Plan for “passing the torch” to the next generation of leadership.
Human Resource Management For exhaustive reading Job Design, Org Structure, etc
However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results. Winston Churchill If GE's strategy of investment in China is wrong, it represents a loss of a billion dollars, perhaps a couple of billion dollars. If it is right, it is the future of this company for the next century. Jack Welch Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat. Sun Tzu All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved. Sun Tzu Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy. Sun Tzu You have to be fast on your feet and adaptive or else a strategy is useless. Charles de Gaulle My whole career strategy has been to build a base so that I could take the roles I want to play. I'd hate to think that a shorter part might not be available because I was worried about my billing. Jack Nicholson I think we have to notice that the business processes we use right now for thinking and planning and budgeting and strategy are all delivered on very tight agendas. Margaret J. Wheatley Leadership is a potent combination of strategy and character. But if you must be without one, be without the strategy. Norman Schwarzkopf You may not be interested in strategy, but strategy is interested in you. Leon Trotsky
• Everything rises and falls on leadership. The reason why some families and Corporations seem to have it all while others struggle along is a result of good leadership and bad leadership respectively. • Leading is an act of energetic purpose - it's the directing, focusing, shaping or configuring of energy towards a desired objective. • The art of leadership takes years to learn, mainly because knowing how to lead requires knowledge of yourself, knowledge of those you lead, and knowing how to get things done.
How can you be more of a leader in your job? • Leadership capability rarely emerges overnight; it takes time and practice. • Finding the right opportunity is important, so you may want to make it a point to tell your boss you are ready for more responsibility. Demonstrate your readiness by proposing to lead a specific project or expand your responsibilities in a way that will enable you to take a leadership position and test your skills. • Plan carefully to acquire the skills, resources and support you will need.
Real Attributes of a Leader
Commanding an audience is a great skill that many effective leaders have, but it’s by no means the sole contributor to their success. Leaders need to be problem solvers. They also need to possess originality and flair, confidence, self-knowledge, strong communication skill, strong interpersonal skills, an ability to listen, an ability to create a vision, and good organizational skills.
Types of Leadership
There are different types of leadership. Think of three shepherds: The first opens the gate and walks through, allowing the flock to follow. This shepherd leads from the front. The second shepherd stands behind the sheep and pushes or guides them through, demonstrating a supportive leadership style. The third moves from front to back and sometimes to the middle of the flock, demonstrating an interactive leadership style.
Leaders walk that extra mile which others don’t – I took the road less travelled by and that’s made the difference.
• • • • • • • • • Leaders posses positive attitude. Believe in themselves Change is their way of life Leaders plan ahead Leaders build relationships with quality people Leaders are optimists Leaders do not take issues personally Leaders do not sit on past laurels Leaders build people -- Enable or empower people -- Enlighten or educate people -- Energize or elevate people
• " Accomplish, celebrate and let it soak through quickly, and then ask yourself, 'what next?' and gear up for it!" • " You don't get paid for the hour. You get paid for the value you bring to the hour." • If you fail, have the courage to stand up again." • " Life has taught me to behave like an eagle. It rises above the storm, avoids problems, has very good eyesight, never misses a catch and is dangerous. Apply all of these when you do things; you will outsmart even yourself."
Motivation is the activation or energization of goaloriented behavior.
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of reading, solving a puzzle or the love of playing chess, etc. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations.
“Dreamers don't achieve but inventors do. Invent the dreams your have dreamt. Listen to what other professionals are saying, watch what they do, try it out but do your best to put it in a new direction; then you will be quoted!" “The harder your work, the luckier you get”.
• Interpersonal communication can be described as the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people in an effective manner. It can be done talking face to face with another person or via telephone, email, letters or meetings.
Quotes on Communication
"Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never swallow it again." – Russian Proverb. “Knowledge talks, wisdom listens”. “Don’t burn bridges because you may need to use the bridge sometime again in your life”.
Worried? Do you feel like being pushed to the corner?
Want to Be a Star? Then you should do things that make you a star !
Dreamers don’t achieve but inventors do
Assignment: www.toastmasters.org Visit a nearby club – carries examination mark
Toastmasters Educational System
Workgroup may refer to
• A group of people working together toward a common goal, also known as a working group • Working in groups is almost unavoidable today. Often you will be asked to work in groups in school, college, university, at work or sometimes when participating in a volunteer activity. • Specific and clear communication is the key to successfully working in groups, whether for short term or long term projects.
Teams have many definitions, including the following: • • • A unified, interdependent, cohesive group of people working together to achieve common objectives (Recardo) "Team development is the process of unifying a group of people with a common objective into an effectively functioning unit“ People with complementary skills, committed to a common purpose approach, who work together effectively and hold themselves mutually accountable (Mendzela) A number of persons associated together in work or activity (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)
Quotes on Teams
• “Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean.” • “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.” • “The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have others on your side” • “If you can laugh together, you can work together” • “Teamwork is essential - it allows you to blame someone else”
Advantages of Teams
Teams are helpful in dividing and organizing work. Advantages include breaking down departmental or branch barriers, improving service, providing more time for other duties, identifying issues, obtaining feedback from others, and, of course, dividing up work duties and responsibilities. These are all obviously advantageous to any company.
Reasons for team failure include internal competition, companies' failure to recognize team performance, lack of clear goals, regionalism, Castism, lack of respect among team members (such as passing comments, cracking jokes, etc) The team should not be in competition with the individual; the team works through individuals toward a common goal.
Elements of Controlling
Control Function in Management
– Regulation of activities and behaviors within organizations – Adjustment or conformity to specifications or objectives
• Effective control depends heavily on other functions that precede it and feeds back to them
– Planning – Organizing – Leading
Control Function in Management
Ensures adjustment or conformity to objectives Ensures adjustment or conformity to specifications Regulates activities Regulates behavior
Control’s Feedback Loop
Planning Feedback Changes in
Basic Elements in Control Process
Establish standards • Specification starts at the top of the organization and involves every level of employee • Standards – performance target • Involving employees in setting standards
• Commits the employees to achieving the standards • Select appropriate standards
t th se
How difficult should they be to reach?
Basic Elements in Control Process
Measure performance • Obtain consensus about how to assess performance • If performance involves multiple activities, performance measure must be comprehensive / broad.
Is t tho here pe se in con s me rform volv ens as an ed us a ure ce a d? wil s to mon l b ho g e w
Measurement of Performance
c nt e rem su ea ? m d an tifie C an qu ia ter ri
of ts ec sp d? y a to sure ar ss uting mea ce ne ntrib eing ll e a ns co ce b Ar io an t ac rform pe
Ca co n ex ntr pe ols ns be ive, eli bu mi t na non ted cri tica ? l,
Basic Elements in Control Process
Compare performance against standards • Managers must interpret the patterns of comparisons (some negative/some positive)
Compare performance against standards
Basic Elements in Control Process
Evaluate results/take necessary corrective action • Not all results require action
• Evaluate importance and magnitude of the deviation
Compare performance against standards Evaluate results and take any necessary corrective action
• Determine what action to take if necessary
• • • • Diagnosis skills of managers Level of expertise Evaluate the standards and the measures Employees performing better than “standard” should be recognized and rewarded • Believe in Continuous Improvement and Best Practice Management
Outcomes of Performance Measurement
Actual performance better than expected performance
Actual performance measured against standard for performance Gap Detected
Reinforcing Action Taken (e.g., increase rewards and recognition, consider increasing production targets, add new product lines)
Actual performance worse than expected performance
Corrective Action Taken (e.g., increase training, modify supervision, invest in newer equipment)
Types and Scope of Control
Strategic Controls Tactical Controls Operational Controls
Scope of Control
Strategic Control • Assess and regulate how the organization fits its external environment and meets its long-range objectives and goals • Control becomes less efficient in uncertain or changing environments
Tactical Control: Controlling the approach path or the manner which organization takes to achieve strategy. Operational Control: Controlling the day to day activities.
Types of Organizational Controls:
Control can focus on events before, during, or after a process. For example, a car dealer can focus on activities before, during, or after sales of new cars. Careful inspection of new cars and cautious selection of sales employees are ways to ensure high quality or profitable sales even before those sales take place. Monitoring how salespeople act with customers is a control during the sales task. Counting the number of new cars sold during the month and telephoning buyers about their satisfaction with sales transactions are controls after sales have occurred. Types of controls are formally called feedforward, concurrent, and feedback, respectively
Feedforward controls, sometimes called preliminary or preventive controls, attempt to identify and prevent deviations in the standards before they occur. Feedforward controls focus on human, material, and financial resources within the organization. These controls are evident in the selection and hiring of new employees. For example, organizations attempt to improve the likelihood that employees will perform up to standards by identifying the necessary job skills and by using tests and other screening devices to hire people with those skills. Concurrent controls monitor ongoing employee activity to ensure consistency with quality standards. These controls rely on performance standards, rules, and regulations for guiding employee tasks and behaviors. Their purpose is to ensure that work activities produce the desired results. As an example, many manufacturing operations include devices that measure whether the items being produced meet quality standards. Employees monitor the measurements; if they see that standards are not being met in some area, they make a correction themselves or let a manager know that a problem is occurring. Feedback controls involve reviewing information to determine whether performance meets established standards. For example, suppose that an organization establishes a goal of increasing its profit by 12 percent next year. To ensure that this goal is reached, the organization must monitor its profit on a monthly basis. After three months, if profit has increased by 3 percent, management might assume that plans are going according to schedule.
Production Planning & Control
Methods and procedures employed in handling materials, parts, assemblies, and subassemblies, from their raw or initial stage to the finished product stage in an organized and efficient manner. It also includes activities such as planning, scheduling, routing, dispatching, storage, etc. Production control in a vehicle-manufacturing plant would involve monitoring inventory, ordering parts and materials, and scheduling assembly.
Production control via ERP software
• Management control (as exercised in planning, performance evaluation, and coordination) of financial activities aimed at achieving desired return on investment. • Managers use financial statements (a budget being the primary one), operating ratios, and other financial tools to exercise financial control.
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is often closely related to and sometimes conflated with program management. Project management control systems are the modern tools for managing project scope, cost and schedule. They are based on carefully defined process and document controls, metrics, performance indicators and forecasting with capability to reveal trends toward cost overrun and/or schedule slippage. Identifying those trends early makes them more amenable to successful management. Learn how to use MS Office – Project Management
Change Management / Managing Change
What is Change Management? If you work in a corporation or with a large organization, you might have heard the phrase "change management" used from time to time. Change management has been around for a while, but has become extremely popular with organizations or corporations that would like to initiate significant change to processes that can include both work tasks and culture.
A common definition used for change management is a set of processes that is employed to ensure that significant changes are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change. One of the goals of change management is with regards to the human aspects of overcoming resistance to change in order for organizational members to buy into change and achieve the organization's goal of an orderly and effective transformation.
The ADKAR Model Change management has been developed over a period of time and one of the models that have played an influence in change management is the ADKAR model. ADKAR was a model developed by Prosci. In this model, there are five specific stages that must be realized in order for an organization or an individual to successfully change. They include: Awareness - An individual or organization must know why a specific change or series of changes are needed. Desire - Either the individual or organizational members must have the motivation and desire to participate in the called for change or changes. Knowledge - Knowing why one must change is not enough; an individual or organization must know how to change. Ability - Every individual and organization that truly wants to change must implement new skills and behaviors to make the necessary changes happen. Reinforcement - Individuals and organizations must be reinforced to sustain any changes making them the new behavior, if not; an individual or organization will probably revert back to their old behavior.
Change - Quotes
Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself. Leo Tolstoy Slowness to change usually means fear of the new. It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change -Charles Darwin 1809-1882, English biologist and father of the evolution theory Change is good - you go first Be the change you want to see in the world
Organizational Change Management
Organizational change management takes into consideration both the processes and tools that managers use to make changes at an organizational level. Most organizations want change implemented with the least resistance and with the most buy-in as possible. For this to occur, change must be applied with a structured approach so that transition from one type of behavior to another organization wide will be smooth.
Management's Role in the Organizational Change
In most cases, management's first responsibility is to identify processes or behaviors that are not proficient and come up with new behaviors, processes, etc that are more effective within an organization. Once changes are identified, it is important for managers to estimate the impact that they will have to the organization and individual employee on many levels including technology, employee behavior, work processes, etc. At this point management should assess the employee's reaction to an implemented change and try to understand the reaction to it. In many cases, change can be extremely beneficial with lots of positives; however certain changes do sometimes produce a tremendous amount of resistance. It is the job of management to help support workers through the process of these changes, which are at times very difficult. The end result is that management must help employees accept change and help them become well adjusted and effective once these changes have been implemented.
The Importance of Buy In For an individual or organization to achieve change effectively, it is important that individuals in the organization that will need to make modifications to their behavior exhibit buy in. Buy in means that the organization as a whole understands that the changes that need to be made are ultimately beneficial to both the individual and the organization. In addition, each individual and the organization as a whole will have to work hard to make the necessary behavior modifications. If an organization tries to make changes which are inherently bad or are not received positively by an organization, it will be much more difficult or close to impossible to implement these changes without significant resistance. You can enhance buy in by first explaining the changes you would like to make, citing issues with current procedures and then communicating the benefits for both the individual and organization.
• Innovation Management • Continuous Improvement • Technology Leadership
• In Organizational development (OD), learning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization, i.e., an organization that is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly. (see adaptive system). OD specialists endeavor to assist their clients to learn from experience and incorporate the learning as feedback into the planning process. • Knowledge Management
Learning Organization, an organization is learning when it can bring about the future it most desires. In the business community, learning is much more than just a way to create the future you want; in today's fast-paced, highly competitive work world, it may actually give your organization the edge it needs to survive—and thereby keep fulfilling its purpose. A Learning Organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning Organizations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organizations and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment
Corporate Image Building
• Creating an image for your company is only the first step, however; you must also support and maintain your image through your actions Make sure that the image you present to your customers is accurate. When I was shopping for window blinds recently, I was drawn to a local store that advertised, “We beat all prices by 20 percent.” However, the quote I received from this company was the same as from other stores. As a result, the “discount” store lost all credibility with me. Once you have determined what your image should be, you must strive to deliver that image to your customers.
• Role of Advertising in Corporate Image Building • Brand Management • A brand is not a logo. But a brand is an experience • Corporate Image Branding
• CSR of a company of your choice • Managerial decision making – how leaders take decision – example of leaders • Leaders of your choice (two) and write about their achievements, how they have reached the top. • Bangalore: Divyasree Greens, Intermediate Ring Road, Next to Embassy Golf Links, Domlur, Ph: 9980020224
Bill Gates foundation, Michael Dell Foundation = CSR
HBS case study
Assignment Questions: 1. Should Wollen recommend Lewis for the U.K. position? Is Abbott correct in saying that Wollen has made this too much of a personal issue? 2. If she does recommend him, are there other steps she should take to ensure his success? 3. If she does not recommend him, are there other steps she should take on his behalf or within the firm more generally?
Sunlight Electric – Clean Power http://www.sunlightelectric.com/index.htm
Capture the Sun
A PV system includes panels, racking, inverters, wiring, and conduit. Batteries and charge controllers are required only if you will require back up power
• Do Young Kim • Project Leader of CSR, SK Telecom
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.