STRESS

DEFINITION
• Non specific response of the body to any kind of demand made upon it (Hans selye) • Internal resisting force brought into action in the part by external force (Harold Walt) • Condition in which the person responds to changes in the normal balance state

Sources of stress
• Internal stress • External stress • Developmental stress • Situational stress • Specific sources

Effect of stress
• • • • • Physically – can affect physiological homeostasis Emotionally- negative and non constructive feeling of self Intellectually – perceptual and problem solving ability Socially – alter relationship Spiritually – challenge one’s believes and value

Illness related to stress: • Metabolic disorders • Skin disorders • Respiratory disorder • CV disorders • GI disorders • Muscular disorders

Principles
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Involves the total person Developing response to various stimulus Different people responds in variety of ways The same person may develop different reaction different situation Certain amount of stress is beneficial and too less stress can eventually harmful Stress is linked with some disease condition – major causative for heart diseases. Those subjected to severe stress are in prone to accident Life in a country/suburbs is equal stressful as city The intensity & duration depends on subject factors

General reaction of body to stress

STAGES OF ADAPTATION
STRESSOR ALARM REACTION SHOCK PHASE

EPINEPHRINE

NOR EPINEPHRINE

CORTISONE

COUNTER SHOCK PHASE STAGE OF RESISTANCE

ADAPTATION

STAGE OF EXHAUTION REST DEATH

GENERAL REACTION OF BODY TO STRESS GAS

LOCAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME LAS

• Inflammatory adaptive response • Immunological adaptive response • Psychological level of adaptation

Signs and symptoms
1. Physiological assessment 2. Behavior assessment (psycho social ) 3. Psychological response
– – – – Reduce intellectual process Increased self sensitivity Decreased ability to cope with master task Decrease sense of personal effectiveness

Factors influencing stress
• Previous learning • Stage of development • Life events • Health • Coping methods

Nursing intervention
• • • • • • • • • • Be sensitive to specific situation and exp. Orient the client to hospital/agency Support client and family Ventilation of feelings and thoughts Understand perspective on situation Communication Maintain identity of patient Control environment Participation in plan of care Repeat information if required

• Encourage physical activities, balance diet and rest and sleep • Ensure Expectation on client capability • Get the help of community agencies – alcoholic anonymous • Re enforce +ve environmental factors • Correct appraisal of situation by client • Independence in environment to function • Arrange visit to other patients • Trustful environment provision

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