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STRESS

DEFINITION
• Non specific response of the body to
any kind of demand made upon it
(Hans selye)
• Internal resisting force brought into
action in the part by external force
(Harold Walt)
• Condition in which the person
responds to changes in the normal
balance state
Sources of stress
• Internal stress
• External stress
• Developmental stress
• Situational stress
• Specific sources
Effect of stress
• Physically – can affect physiological homeostasis
• Emotionally- negative and non constructive feeling of self
• Intellectually – perceptual and problem solving ability
• Socially – alter relationship
• Spiritually – challenge one’s believes and value

Illness related to stress:


• Metabolic disorders
• Skin disorders
• Respiratory disorder
• CV disorders
• GI disorders
• Muscular disorders
Principles
1. Involves the total person
2. Developing response to various stimulus
3. Different people responds in variety of ways
4. The same person may develop different reaction
different situation
5. Certain amount of stress is beneficial and too
less stress can eventually harmful
6. Stress is linked with some disease condition –
major causative for heart diseases.
7. Those subjected to severe stress are in prone to
accident
8. Life in a country/suburbs is equal stressful as
city
9. The intensity & duration depends on subject
factors
General reaction of body to
stress
STAGES OF ADAPTATION
STRESSOR

ALARM REACTION

SHOCK PHASE

EPINEPHRINE NOR EPINEPHRINE CORTISONE

COUNTER SHOCK PHASE

STAGE OF RESISTANCE

ADAPTATION STAGE OF EXHAUTION

REST DEATH
GENERAL REACTION OF BODY
TO STRESS

GAS
LOCAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
LAS

• Inflammatory adaptive response


• Immunological adaptive response
• Psychological level of adaptation
Signs and symptoms
1. Physiological assessment
2. Behavior assessment (psycho social )
3. Psychological response
– Reduce intellectual process
– Increased self sensitivity
– Decreased ability to cope with master
task
– Decrease sense of personal
effectiveness
Factors influencing stress

• Previous learning
• Stage of development
• Life events
• Health
• Coping methods
Nursing intervention

• Be sensitive to specific situation and exp.


• Orient the client to hospital/agency
• Support client and family
• Ventilation of feelings and thoughts
• Understand perspective on situation
• Communication
• Maintain identity of patient
• Control environment
• Participation in plan of care
• Repeat information if required
• Encourage physical activities, balance diet
and rest and sleep
• Ensure Expectation on client capability
• Get the help of community agencies –
alcoholic anonymous
• Re enforce +ve environmental factors
• Correct appraisal of situation by client
• Independence in environment to function
• Arrange visit to other patients
• Trustful environment provision