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EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS

GENERATION BY GENERATION
ASHAR ALI KHAN
ASJADULLAH SAROSH
BINISH KHALID
CHAYA SINGH

HOW BOUT WATCHIN A MOVIE???

HISTORY~ VERY CONFUSING


Many authors have different notion of computer Generation.
We are going by Generations Defined by Computational
Science Education Project, US.

GENERATION 0(1623-1945)
This Generation Zero is also known as Mechanical Era.
Used Machine to solve mathematical problems.
Dates back to 17th Century.
Prominent names Wilhelm Schickhard, Blaise Pascal and
Gottfried Leibnitz.

CONT
First Multi-Purpose or
Programmable Computing
was designed by Charles
Babbage.

Difference Engine in 1823.


More ambitious machine
called Analytical Engine in
1842 with Ada Lovelace

CONT
US Census Beauru was one of
the first organization to use the
mechanical computers using
punch card designed by
Herman Hollerith.

Was used for 1890 census.

1ST GENERATION ELECTRONIC


COMPUTER(1937-53)
Devices used electronic switches, in the form of vaccum
tubes, instead of electromechanical relays.

First attempt was taken by J.V. Attansoft, a physics prof in


1937 to solve partial differential equations.

Second in the series was COLOSSUS, designed by Alan Turing


for British Millitary in 1943.

CONT
First General purpose programmable computer was Electronic Numrical
Integrator and Calculator(ENIAC).

Built by J. Presper Eckert and John V. Mauchly at the University of


Pennsylvania.

Later, Eckert, Mauchly along with John Von Numan started new project EDVAC
It could store program.
Later in 1952, Eckert and Mauchly made UNIVAC First Commercially
Successful Computer.

2ND GENERATION (1954-62)


It witnessed several important development at all levels of
Computer Sytem Design.

Electronic switches in this era were based on discrete diode


and transistor technology with a switching time of appx. 0.3
micro sec.

First Machines to be built with this technology was TRADIC at


Bell Lab in 1954 TX- 0 at MITS Lincoln Labratory

CONT
There was introduction of High Level Programming Language
were introduced and the most famous was FORTRAN(1956).

Important Commercial Machine included the IBM 704 and


709.

3RD GENERATION (1963-72)


Technology changes in this generation include the use of
integrated circuit(IC).

IC These are semiconductor devices with several transistor


built into one physical component.

Semiconductor memories, MicroProgramming technique for


designing complex processor.

CONT
The first IC was based on SSI(Small Scale Integration) circuit
(10 devices per circuit).

CDC 6600 architecture was developed by Seymour Cray.


It used 10 functional unit that could operate parallel at rate
of Million floating Point Operation per Sec(MFLOPS).

Later, IBM 360/91 was released during same period it was


twice fast as CDC 660.

4TH GENERATION (1972-84)


Large Scale Integration (1000 devices per chip) and VLSI (10000
devices per chip) were used in construction of 4th Gen Comp.

Now entire computer (Processor, Main Memory and I/O Controllers )


could fit on chip.

IBM along with MicroSoft in 1980 started PC(Personal Computers).


The PC was loaded with MS-DOS 1.0
Programming saw was change in form of Introduction of C by Denis
Ritchie.

5TH GENERATION (1984-1990)


Thist generation brought about the introduction of machines with
hundred of process that could all be working on different part of single
program.

Chips were made with million components.


Semiconductor memories became standard on all computers.
Parellal Processing started in this generation
Sequent Balance 8000 connected up to 20 processors to a single
shared memory module

CONT
Later computers were developed that could connect upto 128
processors.

Concept of WAN and LAN were incorporated.

6TH GENERATION (1990- PRESENT)


Most of the development since 1990s have been fundamental
Gradual development took place over fundamentals.
Speed of Processing enhanced, now PC operated on Giga Byte Per Sec.
Storage was now in Gigabytes.
Primary Memories got upgraded to GBs.
High Resolution Monitors were now aviliabl.
It brought micro controller on each individual device enabling Plug n Play.