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Review for Unit Test 1
The Prehistoric World
• • • • • • • • • • History is a written record of the past Everything before writing is prehistoric Anthropologists study human societies Archaeologists study artifact Scientists believe man first appeared in Africa Hunter gatherer societies: hunt animals and gather fruits, nuts and vegetables Old stone age, flint knives and spear heads During Ice Age: Big game hunters. Big animals ate grass and moss Warming climate caused thick forests, old food sources cut off Hunted smaller animals and learned to fish (bows, nets, fish hooks)
Agriculture Revolution (7000- 6500 BC)
• Probably began in hills of north and east of Iraq • Learned to grow wheat and barley (bread and beer) • Domesticated animals (goats and sheep) • Slash and burn farmers in woods: needed ax, hoe, sickle • New Stone Age: polished granite or basalt ax heads • Villages: clay pots and bricks • Number of people grew, division of labor
A Neolithic man and woman glean wheat and barley on a spring morning in Mesopotamia around 5000 B.C. In the background stand the mud houses of their permanent village.
• Forager Bands: hunter gatherers. Up to 40 people. Men related to each other. Classless: everyone equal. Leaders rise based on ability and skill. • Farmer Tribes: farming increases land’s carrying capacity. More people than in bands. Still classless: everyone equal. Leaders still rise based on ability and skill.
• By about 5000 BC farming villages had replaced hunter gather bands as the basic unit of human society. • Farming villages spread across Eurasia, Africa and the Americas and had become the way of life for most people in the world. • Most people in the world have continued to live in such villages until very recently. • Once adjustments to local conditions worked out customary routines were passed down from generation to generation with small changes for thousands of years.
Priest led tribal Societies
• Local leaders claiming special contacts to spirit world organized large scale agricultural and artisan efforts to prevent anger of gods. • Farmers had to learn when to plant and how to save enough seed for next planting. Careful observation of sun, moon, planets and stars allowed priests to determine proper planting seasons. • Gifts of food to gods created reserve under priestly control available to feed people if a famine came. • Farming communities led by priests were and regulated by religious rituals were better able to withstand disasters from weather, weeds, and pests.
Chiefdoms: Warrior led Societies
• Priests eventually lost power to warriors. • When priestly management created large surpluses organized robbery became a possible way of life. • Caused need for professional fighting men to protect communities from plunder. • Chief took control of organized violence in exchange for protection payments. Used specialized weapons, discipline and training to give his warriors superiority over most raiders and robbers. • Both farmers and warriors benefited from predictable rents and taxes instead of the cost of ruinous plunder. • The professional warriors could and did force the priestly elites to accept subordination or some type of alliance.
• Chiefdoms: complex society with hereditary leader. Leader collects tribute and can force people to work. Large projects like dams, irrigation canals etc. • States: build civilizations; writing, law codes, social classes bureaucracy. Bureaucrats: in between nobles and peasants; enforce and deliver will of the leader. Bigger projects: Pyramids of Egypt, Great Wall of China. • Both have less war: in time of need upper class can starve the peasants instead of attacking neighbors.
The Birth of Civilization
• Rivers provided fresh water that could irrigate fields and allow crops to grow. • Irrigation & flood control ; growth of villages, towns, (need for leaders, organizers) • Cities: Some Villages grew to become cities. • Economic specialization (different jobs such as artisans and farmers). Increased long-distance trade. • Technological innovations (metal working, wheel, plow, shipbuilding) • Writing (keep track of trade items & taxes!) • Stratification: dividing of society into different classes. • Government & Religion became more complex (built temples & palaces). Polytheism (many Gods)
First Civilization: Sumer
• Occurred in Mesopotamia between Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq • Leadership needed to direct work in irrigation canals • Led to city states ruled by: kings and priests • Society centered around god’s house: Ziggurat • Surplus of food enabled people to specialize in other trades • Technology: Used potters wheel, wheeled vehicles, sail boats, and the plow. • Developed Metallurgy, first copper then Bronze (copper+tin) • Developed writing, (cuneiform) history begins
• • • • • • • • • By 3000 BC kings were military leaders Rivalry over water led to wars and conquest, Led to social classes: masters and servants Power moved upstream to Akkad Sargon of Akkad (c2250 BC) created empire (ruled over other city states) Sargon’s Troops used composite bow Semitic languages (like Akkadian) replaced Sumerian Power shifted north (up stream) to Babylon Hammurabi developed written law code (about 1750 BC)
Empire of Sargon 2350-2820 B.C.
• Depended on regular annual flooding of Nile River. Deserts protected against outside attacks • Unification of Upper (south) and Lower Egypt 3100 BC under King Menes. Control of transportation and communication on river gave pharaoh his power. • Beginning of old kingdom (3100-2200 BC) capital Memphis near point of delta • Led by God King or Pharaoh who give immortality to faithful servants. Pyramids were tombs for Pharaohs • Rebellious local officials disrupted government for almost 200 years • Middle Kingdom (2000-1800 BC) conqueror from south reunited Egypt. Capital moved upstream (south) at Thebes. Local landlords more important than in Old Kingdom, spread culture
Other River Civilizations
• • • • • Indus Valley Civilization (2500-1500 BC) Had contact with Sumer Built large cities along Indus River Had contact with Sumer Built large cities along Indus River
• Civilization began along Yellow River Valley ( 2500 to 1400 BC) in north east China • High level farming culture developed • China isolated by: Gobi Desert, Pacific Ocean, and Himalayas
Civilization spreads to Rain watered lands
• Ideas spread by conquest and trade • Plow enabled farming away from rivers • Hittites in Asia Minor (Turkey) Canaanites in modern Israel, Jordan and Lebanon • High culture spread across Europe (megalith religion- built Stonehenge in England) • Minoan Civilization (3000- 1400 BC) on Crete and other Mediterranean Islands. • Location of Minoan civilization allowed them to develop economies based on trade.
Spread of Civilization
• First settlers were hunter-gatherers migrating out of Africa. • Knowledge of farming spread from Fertile Crescent to Europe. • Complex civilizations slower to develop in Europe than in Fertile Crescent because plentiful rainfall made large-scale irrigation projects unnecessary. • European farming communities remained small for a long time before complex urban civilizations developed. • Megalith stones set up during Neolithic period in Europe beginning about 4500 BC.
Two views of Stonehenge Salisbury Plain England Built about 1650 B.C.
• Some peoples only adopted some aspects of civilization. • Some cared for domesticated animals but did not settle down and plant crops. They were often nomads. • Pastoralists: like hunters lived off plant eating animals could be shepherds or cattle herders. • Pastoralists required larger “Carrying Capacity” than farmers. Needed more land to feed themselves. Usually very war like. Fought over best pasture land.
Out on the Steppes
• Horse herders of steppe learned to use wheel and developed light chariot. • Combined chariot with composite bow and bronze weapons and became deadly fighters. • Rivalry between farmers and herdsmen: nomads superior fighters but many more farmers. • Chariot barbarians swarmed out of steppes (1700- 1400 BC) and over ran the civilized lands. • Conquered civilizations in Mesopotamia (Kassites) , Egypt (Hyksos), Indus Valley (Aryans) and Yellow River (Shang) • Many invaders spoke Indo European Languages the same as we do.
A Deadly Combination
Large Horse breeds not yet developed Most horses like large ponies, to small to carry a large man especially if he was wearing bronze armor.
Light Chariot and Composite Bow. Chariots carried a driver and a shooter.
The Aegean Sea Region
• New crops, olives and grapes introduced by farmer tribes about 5000 BC. • Minoan civilization centered in Crete controlled islands of Aegean from 2100arround 1500 BC.
• Minoans named for their ruler, King Minos. • Lived mainly on island of Crete (south of Greece in eastern Mediterranean Sea) many think the Minoans represent the legend of Atlantis • Because of their island location, they had easy access to trade by sea. Became traders with networks around the Aegean Sea. • Seem to have been more peaceful than most. Few fortifications in their ruins. No images of war in their art. May have relied on a strong navy for protection. • Civilization influenced most by geographical position & trade with Egyptian empire & Mesopotamian lands. • Decline of Minoan civilization: Earthquakes & tidal waves, followed by attacks from Greece.
Early Civilization Summary
• With development of Cities and Civilizations in river valleys, traders, professional fighting men, and skilled artisans began to operate across wider and wider areas. • Civilizations next spread to rain watered lands and ideas from civilized lands reached barbarian warriors of northern steppe and dwellers on shores of Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. • Cities remained exceptional and unstable. But instability, tensions and challenges forced city people to develop technological, religious, political, and economic changes of history. • Development of horse chariot warfare about 1700 BC led to a wave of barbarian attacks on civilized regions that was never equaled again.
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