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# Solid-Liquid Equilibrium

Identification
Give five types of adsorbents

## Activated carbon: 10-60 ; Organics

Silica gel: 20-50 ; dehydrate gases and
liquids, fractionate hydrocarbons
Activated alumina: 20-140 , dry gases and
liquids
Molecular sieve zeolites: 3-10 , drying,
separation of hydrocarbons, and many other
Synthetic polymers or resins:
divinylbenzene nonpolar organics from aqueous
Acrylic ester polar solutes in aqueous solution

Identification
Give 6 types of adsorption isotherms

## Type I Langmuirian (monolayer)

Type II monolayer then multilayer
(BET)
Type III multilayer
Type IV monolayer then capillary
condensation
Type V multilayer then capillary
condensation

## Ang ginagamit sa SLE ay Linear,

Freundlich, and Langmuirian

## A wastewater solution having a volume of

1.0 m3 contains 0.21 kg phenol/m3 of
solution (0.21 g/L). A total of 1.40 kg of
fresh granular activated carbon is added to
the solution, which is then mixed
thoroughly to reach the equilibrium. What
is the %phenol extracted? The equilibrium
equation is as follows:
Q = 0.199c^0.229

70.50%

## A wastewater solution having a volume of

1.0 m3 contains 0.21 kg phenol/m3 of
solution (0.21 g/L). A total of 1.40 kg of
fresh granular activated carbon is added to
the solution, which is then mixed
thoroughly to reach the equilibrium. What
is the %phenol extracted? The equilibrium
equation is as follows:
Q = 0.482c/(0.213+C)

72.04%

## A wastewater solution having a volume of

1.0 m3 contains 0.21 kg phenol/m3 of
solution (0.21 g/L). A total of 1.40 kg of
fresh granular activated carbon is added to
the solution, which is then mixed
thoroughly to reach the equilibrium. What
is the %phenol extracted? The equilibrium
equation is as follows:
Q = 0.482c

40.24%

Identification
Major part of the adsorption takes
place in this area. This moves across
a fixed bed as time passes by.

## When the outlet concentration

reaches this point, it is an indication
that the adsorbent bed is completely
spent and that the outlet
concentration will quickly start to
approach the inlet concentration

Break point

Tiller-Tour equation
Constant underflow

ya

ya

xa

yb

xa

xb

## Aka Absorption Factor

Method
If solvent/solid ratio is constant, use
mass solute/mass solvent units
If solution/solid ratio is constant, use
mass solute/mass solution units

## Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in

two stages. First, through expellers to squeeze out
part of the coconut oil and then through a counter
current multi-stage solvent extraction process.
After expelling, the dry copra cake contains 20%
residual oil. In the solvent extraction operation,
90% of the residual oil in the expeller cake is
extracted as a solution containing 50% by weights
oil. If fresh solvent is used and one kg of solution
with every 2 kg of insoluble cake is removed with
underflow, the number of ideal stages required is
____.

## Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in

two stages. First, through expellers to squeeze out
part of the coconut oil and then through a counter
current multi-stage solvent extraction process.
After expelling, the dry copra cake contains 30%
residual oil. In the solvent extraction operation,
85% of the residual oil in the expeller cake is
extracted as a solution containing 40% by weights
oil. If fresh solvent is used and one kg of solution
with every 3 kg of insoluble cake is removed with
underflow, the number of ideal stages required is
____.

## Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in

two stages. First, through expellers to squeeze out
part of the coconut oil and then through a counter
current multi-stage solvent extraction process.
After expelling, the dry copra cake contains 25%
residual oil. In the solvent extraction operation,
95% of the residual oil in the expeller cake is
extracted as a solution containing 60% by weights
oil. If fresh solvent is used and one kg of solution
with every 1 kg of insoluble cake is removed with
underflow, the number of ideal stages required is
____.

## A multiple contact extraction system is to treat

1.25 tons (2500 lbs) per hour of dry black ash
containing 40% Na2CO3 and 60% insoluble
matter with 30 gpm of water. If 5% of the
Na2CO3 remains unextracted, calculate the
number of ideal stages by the absorption factor
method. The mass ratio of insoluble matter to
solvent in the underflow from the stage is 1:2.
The number of ideal stages required is ____
1 gallon = 3.78541 L

## A multiple contact extraction system

is to treat 1.25 tons per hour of dry
black ash containing 35% Na2CO3
and 65% insoluble matter with 30
gpm of water. If 5% of the Na2CO3
remains unextracted, calculate the
number of ideal stages by the
absorption factor method. The mass
ratio of insoluble matter to solvent in
the underflow from the stage is 1:3.

## A multiple contact extraction system

is to treat 1.25 tons per hour of dry
black ash containing 20% Na2CO3
and 80% insoluble matter with 30
gpm of water. If 1% of the Na2CO3
remains unextracted, calculate the
number of ideal stages by the
absorption factor method. The mass
ratio of insoluble matter to solvent in
the underflow from the stage is 1:2.

## A multiple contact extraction system

is to treat 1.25 tons per hour of dry
black ash containing 20% Na2CO3
and 80% insoluble matter with 60
gpm of water. If 1% of the Na2CO3
remains unextracted, calculate the
number of ideal stages by the
absorption factor method. The mass
ratio of insoluble matter to solvent in
the underflow from the stage is 1:2.

## A multiple contact extraction system

is to treat 1.25 tons per hour of dry
black ash containing 20% Na2CO3
and 80% insoluble matter with 30
gpm of water. If 10% of the Na2CO3
remains unextracted, calculate the
number of ideal stages by the
absorption factor method. The mass
ratio of insoluble matter to solvent in
the underflow from the stage is 1:2.

Leaching Review

Washing Factor

y2

y1

FA, FB

x1

xN

Washing Factor
Pure water is to be used to dissolve
1350 kg/h of Na2CO3 from 3750 kg/h
of a solid mixture, where the balance
is an insoluble oxide. If 4,000 kg/h of
water is used as the solvent for the
carbonate and the total underflow
from each stage is 40 wt% solvent on
a solute-free basis, compute the
percent recovery of the carbonate in
the overflow product for three

Washing Factor
Pure water is to be used to dissolve
1000 kg/h of Na2CO3 from 4000 kg/h
of a solid mixture, where the balance
is an insoluble oxide. If 2000 kg/h of
water is used as the solvent for the
carbonate and the total underflow
from each stage is 30 wt% solvent on
a solute-free basis, compute the
percent recovery of the carbonate in
the overflow product for four

LLE

Extraction Factor

y2

y1

xR

x1

xN

## P-dioxidane is to be removed from

water using benzene as a solvent.
10000 lb/h of a 25 wt% solution of pdioxane is water is to be separated
continuously by using 15000 lb/h of
pure benzene. Assuming the benzene
and water are mutually insoluble,
determine the fractional extraction
after three stages in a countercurrent
setup. Assume that KDB = 1.2

## P-dioxidane is to be removed from

water using benzene as a solvent.
1000 lb/h of a 20 wt% solution of pdioxane is water is to be separated
continuously by using 10000 lb/h of
pure benzene. Assuming the benzene
and water are mutually insoluble,
determine the fractional extraction
after three stages in a cocurrent
setup. Assume that KDB = 1.2

## P-dioxidane is to be removed from

water using benzene as a solvent.
5000 lb/h of a 24 wt% solution of pdioxane is water is to be separated
continuously by using 18000 lb/h of
pure benzene. Assuming the benzene
and water are mutually insoluble,
determine the fractional extraction
after four stages in a crosscurrent
setup. Assume that KDB = 1.2

Stripping/Leaching Kremser
If the equilibrium line is relatively
dilute,
y = mx
A = L/mV

Absorption/Adsorption
y=mx
A = L/mV

y1

x0
1

yN+1

xN

## It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a

gas containing 1.0 mol % acetone in air in a
countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas
flow to the tower is 30.0 kmol/h, and the total
inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the
acetone is 90 kmol H2O/h. The process is to
operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for acetone in the gas-liquid is y =
2.53x. Determine the number of theoretical
stages for this separation.

## It is desired to absorb 98% of the new volatile

liquid noga in a gas containing 1.0 mol % noga
in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total
inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0 kmol/h, and
the total inlet pure water flow to be used to
absorb the acetone is 90 kmol H 2O/h. The
process is to operate isothermally at 300 K and
a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for noga in the gas-liquid is y =
1.994x. Determine the number of theoretical
stages for this separation.

## It is desired to absorb 90% of the new volatile

liquid noga in a gas containing 2.0 mol % noga
in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total
inlet gas flow to the tower is 40.0 kmol/h, and
the total inlet pure water flow to be used to
absorb the acetone is 150 kmol H2O/h. The
process is to operate isothermally at 300 K and
a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for noga in the gas-liquid is y =
1.994x. Determine the number of theoretical
stages for this separation.

## The new volatile liquid noga is to be absorbed

from a gas containing 1.5 mol % noga in air in
a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet
gas flow to the tower is 10.0 kmol/h, and the
total inlet pure water flow to be used to
absorb the acetone is 100 kmol H 2O/h. The
process is to operate isothermally at 300 K
and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The
equilibrium equation for noga in the gas-liquid
is y = 1.994x. What is the percent absorbed
after 6 stages?

## The new volatile liquid noga is to be absorbed

from a gas containing 1.0 mol % noga in air in
a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet
gas flow to the tower is 12.5 kmol/h, and the
total inlet pure water flow to be used to
absorb the acetone is 78 kmol H 2O/h. The
process is to operate isothermally at 300 K
and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The
equilibrium equation for noga in the gas-liquid
is y = 1.994x. What is the percent absorbed
after 6 stages?

## It is desired to strip 85% of the poisonous

volatile liquid nogarar in a liquid containing
10.0 mol % nogarar in air in a countercurrent
stage tower. The total inlet pure air flow rate
for desorption to the tower is 94 kmol/h, and
the total liquid flow is 10 kmol/h. The process
is to operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for nogarar in the gas-liquid is y =
0.001994x. Determine the number of
theoretical stages for this separation.

## It is desired to strip 95% of the poisonous

volatile liquid nogarar in a liquid containing
10.0 mol % nogarar in air in a countercurrent
stage tower. The total inlet pure air flow rate
for desorption to the tower is 150 kmol/h, and
the total liquid flow is 10 kmol/h. The process
is to operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for nogarar in the gas-liquid is y =
0.001994x. Determine the number of
theoretical stages for this separation.

## It is desired to strip 99.5% of the poisonous

volatile liquid nogarar in a liquid containing
10.0 mol % nogarar in air in a countercurrent
stage tower. The total inlet pure air flow rate
for desorption to the tower is 150 kmol/h, and
the total liquid flow is 10 kmol/h. The process
is to operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for nogarar in the gas-liquid is y =
0.001994x. Determine the number of
theoretical stages for this separation.

## The poisonous volatile liquid nogarar is to be

stripped from a liquid containing 1.0 mol %
nogarar in air in a countercurrent stage tower.
The total inlet pure air flow rate for
desorption to the tower is 50 kmol/h, and the
total liquid flow is 5 kmol/h. The process is to
operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for nogarar in the gas-liquid is y =
0.001994x. What is the percent removal after
5 stages?

## The poisonous volatile liquid nogarar is to be

stripped from a liquid containing 1.0 mol %
nogarar in air in a countercurrent stage tower.
The total inlet pure air flow rate for
desorption to the tower is 100 kmol/h, and
the total liquid flow is 5 kmol/h. The process
is to operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium
equation for nogarar in the gas-liquid is y =
0.001994x. What is the percent removal after
7 stages?