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Welcome

To
Lords institute of engineering and technology

Mechanical Department
Batch 2006-10

Mini project
on

Automatic control of railway

gate

II In built

Embedded System =
Computer Inside a Product

Embedded System
Embedded system is combination of hardware &

software for specific application.

Embedded system means the processor is embedded

into that application.

An embedded product uses a microprocessor or

microcontroller to do one task only.

In an embedded system, there is only one application

software that is typically burned into ROM.

How an embedded system


works..?
It works with the help of both the hardware

and software requirements


Hardware: processor, memories, peripherals,

power supply etc..,


Software: assembly language program (ALP)

like c, c++ ..,

Types of embedded systems


Simple embedded system

ex: small electrical equipments


completes its work with in the
approximated time
Complex embedded system

ex: used in military missiles for


target based system

Examples of embedded systems


Electronic devices in the kitchen

E.g.: bread machines, food processors,


microwave ovens
Living Rooms

E.g.: televisions, stereos, remote controls


Work places

E.g.: fax, pagers, laser printers, cash


registers, credit card readers

Automotive & Industrial

Chapter -2

Micro controller

Micro controller
The first micro controller was implemented in

1968 by a car company wolves wagons in


their cars.
The 1st micro controller (8048) was developed

by Intel in 1976.

Found in 1984.

Corporate headquarters located in San Jose, California.

AVR basic architecture was developed by two students Alf-

Egil Bogenand Vegard Wollan at the Norwegian Institute


of Technology.
IP Core was sold to Atmel by Alf and Vegard

ATMEL
AT89C, AT90S, AT Mega, ATCAN
AT Mega
AT Mega 8 , AT Mega 8515
AT Mega 8535, AT Mega 16
AT Mega 32, AT Mega 162,

AT Mega Microcontroller
AT represents the name of the manufacturing

company ATMEL.
ATMEL

Advanced Technology Memory End Logic


MEGA
Clock Frequency of the micro controller (1MHz)

Features of ATMega8515

40 Pin IC, PDIP package


High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller
RISC Architecture
130 Powerful Instructions Most Single Clock Cycle
Execution
32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
Program and Data Memories
8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash
512 Bytes EEPROM
Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles
512 Bytes Internal SRAM
35 Programmable I/O Lines

Pin configuration
From 1-40

40
39

Port B

Vcc

Port A
8
Reset

ATMEGA

32

8515

ICP

10

31
30

ALE

29
28

OC1B

Port D

XTAL2
XTAL1
GND

17
18
19
20

Port C

21

Memories in AT Mega
Data Memory Temporary
EEPROM

Permanent

Flash Memory/Programmable Memory

Permanent

Data Memory
General Purpose Registers (G.P.R)

32 registers R0 to R31
Each 8 bits
I/O Registers 64 Each 8 bits
SRAM 512 bytes

Memory Mapping of
Data Memory
$0000
$001F

G. P. R

$0020

$005F

I/O
Registers

$0060

SRAM
$025F

Register Pairs /
Indirect Addressing
R27

R
R29
R
R31

R26
R28
R30

Rah Ral

x pair
y pair
z pair

$025F
$02
$5F

R27
R26

Status Register
It is an 8 bit Special register where each bit in the

register represents a Flag.

Interrupt
Bit
Stor
e

Half
carr
y

Sign

Over
flow

Negativ
e

Zero
Zero

Chapter - 3

IR sensors

Working of IR pairs
Power supply

IR
transmitter

IR receiver

comparato
r

DETECTION FACTORS:
Six factors typically affect the Probability of

Detection (Pd) of most area surveillance


(volumetric) sensors, although to varying degrees.

These are the:


1) Amount and pattern of emitted energy;
2) Size of the object;
3) Distance to the object;
4) Speed of the object;
5) Direction of movement

SENSORS APPLICATIONS:
Most sensors have been designed with a specific

application in mind.
The environment categorizes these applications
where they are most commonly employed.
The two basic environments or categories are
exterior and interior.
Each of the two basic categories has a number of
sub-sets, such as fence, door, window, hallway, and
room.
The first two of the following set of graphics show a
FREE TREE illustration of the sensors most
applicable to the these two environments.

Chapter - 4

Stepper motor

Stepper Motor History :


Definition :
Construction and Operation :
Types of Stepper Motor :
Real World Stepper Motor

Picture of stepper motor

Circuit connections

Operation principle of stepper motor

PRECAUTION
If the stepper motor moves slightly and/or queers hack and

forth, there are a number of possible causes.


If you are using a battery power supply, the batteries may be too
weak to power the motor properly.
Note; Batteries wear out quickly because the current draw from
stepper motors is usually high.
If you substituted another transistor for the TIP120 NPN
transistor, the substitute transistor may not be switching
properly or the current load of the stepper motor may be too
great. Solution; use TIPO120 transistors.
You have the stepper motor improperly wired into the circuit.
Check the coils using an ohmmeter and rewire if necessary.
The pulse frequency is too high. If the pulses to the stepper
moor are going faster that the motor can react, the motor will
malfunction.

Conclusion
This is to conclude that this project Automatic control

of railway gate is useful to know when the train is


passes through the gate, and to close or open the gate
automatically as the train is about to reach the gate.
Through which accidents can be avoided as people
tend to cross the track in spite the gate is being closed