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Humanity will not enjoy

security without
development; it will not
enjoy development
without security; and it
will not enjoy either
without respect for
human rights.

-Kofi Annan Former UN Secretary General

WHAT
IS

The rights that


all people have
by virtue of being
human beings.

It is derived from the


inherent dignity of the
human person and are
defined internationally,
nationally and locally
by various law making
bodies.

DEFINITION
Is defined as the supreme, inherent,
and inalienable rights to life, to
dignity, and to self-development. It
is concerned with issues in both
areas of civil and political rights and
economic, social and cultural rights
founded on internationally accepted
human rights obligations

BRIEF HISTORY
The Cyrus Cylinder (539, B.C)
Antiquity
Code of Hammurabi
Rights of Athenian citizens

Medieval
Magna Carta (1215)
Sir Thomas Aquinas theory of natural
rights (13th Century)

BRIEF HISTORY
Enlightenment
English Declaration of the Rights of Man
(1689)
U.S. Declaration of Independence (1776)
French Declaration of the Rights of Man
and of the Citizen (1789)
United States Constitution and Bill of
Rights (1789)

BRIEF HISTORY
Early Developments (cont.)
International Committee for the Red
Cross (1863)
Geneva Convention (1864)
Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)
League of Nations and the International
Labor Organization (1919)

BRIEF HISTORY
Aftermath of World War II
Roosevelts Four Freedoms Speech
(January 6, 1941)
The Atlantic Charter Between the United
States and Great Britain (August 14,
1941)
The Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals
Creation of the United Nations (1945)

THE LEGAL BASIS


December 10, 1948 UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
(UDHR)
common standard of achievement for all
peoples of all nations
December 16, 1966 by UN General
Assembly: International Covenant on Civil
and Political Rights and the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights

THE LEGAL BASIS


The UDHR by its nature is not
considered a binding part of
International Law.
It is mere declaration and
pronouncement of general principles.
It derives its strength from the UN
Charter, Article 55 which charges all
members to promote universal
respect for and observance of human
rights and fundamental freedoms.

THE THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN


RIGHTS and the INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW (IHL)
A. 1sT GENERATION RIGHTS
. Jean Jacques Rousseau
and John Locke
. Message: liberty
. Classification: civil and
political rights
. Purpose: protect the
people from the Orwellian
big brother tendencies of
the Hobbesian state.

THE THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN


RIGHTS and the INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW (IHL)
B. 2nd GENERATION RIGHTS
Message: equality
Classification: economic, social and cultural
rights
Ensures equitable distribution of societys
wealth and guarantee the common mans
participation in productive activities of
society
Protects people from the abuses of the
capitalist mode of development

THE THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN


RIGHTS and the INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW (IHL)

C. 3rd GENERATION
RIGHTS
Message: fraternity
Classification:
solidarity rights
Provides entitlement
to a social and
international order in
which the rights and
freedoms set forth

FIVE SOLIDARITY
RIGHTS:
Right to peace
Right to
development
Right to a healthy
environment
Right to
humanitarian aid
Right to share in the
worlds common

THE THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN


RIGHTS and the INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW (IHL)
D. INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW
(IHL)
Law of Armed
Conflict (LOAC)
Branch of Public
International Law
and constitutes a
subset of Human
Rights Law

FOUR CATEGORIES:
1. Treaties of the
protection of the
victims of war
2. Treaties on the
limitation and/or
prohibition of different
types of arms
3. Treaties on the
protection of certain
objects
4. Treaties governing
international
jurisdiction (repression
of crimes)

THE THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN


RIGHTS and the INTERNATIONAL
HUMANITARIAN LAW (IHL)

Composed of Geneva Law and


Hague Law
GENEVA LAW
Battle of
Solferino in
1859
Protection of
the victims of
war

HAGUE LAW
Focused on the
limitations of the
means and
methods of
warfare

CLASSES OF RIGHTS
1. NATURAL
RIGHTS

Right to life..
Right to love..

CLASSES OF RIGHTS
2.
CONSTITUTIONAL
RIGHTS

CLASSES OF RIGHTS
3. STATUTORY
LAW

CLASSIFICATION OF
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
1. POLITICAL
RIGHTS
Vote in elections
Freely form or join political
parties
Live in an independent
country
Stand for public office
Freely disagree with views
and policies of political
leaders

CLASSIFICATION OF
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

2. CIVIL
RIGHTS
Life

Belief in own religion


Opinion
Free speech
Non-discrimination
according to sex
Marry
Race
Cultural background

CLASSIFICATION OF
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
3. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
Jobs
RIGHTS
Housing
Work without exploitation
Education
Health services
Recreation
facilities
Clean
environment
Social security

Fair wage
Safe working conditions
Form trade unions
Have adequate food
Protection against labor
malpractices

CLASSIFICATION OF
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

4. RIGHTS OF THE
ACCUSEDof
Presumption

innocence
Speedy
Impartial and
public trial
Against cruel,
degrading or
inhuman
punishment

SOME CULTURAL RIGHTS

Use own language


Develop cultural activities
Ancestral domains
Develop own kind of
schooling

THANK YOU!
UP NEXT!

ARTICLE III: BILL OF RIGHTS