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CHAPTER 3

Chain of infection

Factors Influencing Occupancy of


Infection
1. portal of entry
organisms may fail to produce a disease when
introduced into the body by some other route or
pathway
typhoid bacilli to be swallowed to cause infection
- produces inflammation only when
rubbed on the skin
EX. streptococci
2. virulence of the organisms
ability of the microbes to produce the disease by
overcoming the defensive powers of the host
microbes are most violent when freshly discharged
from an ailing person
3. number of microbes
crucial to infection
4. defensive powers of the host

Patterns of Infection

INCUBATION PERIOD infection is received


to the appearance of disease
- affected by the following factors:
a. nature of the agent
b. virulence of host
c. resistance of host
d. Resistance from the site of entrance to
the focus of action
e. number of infectious agents invading
the body

2. PRODROMAL
PERIOD short
interval that
follows the period
of incubation
- with headache
and malaise

3. INVASION PERIOD
disease reaching its
full development
and maximum
intensity regions
and chills and fever
- skin is pale and
dry
- decreased heat
loss

4. FASTIGIUM or ACME
disease at its height
or peak.
5. DEFERVESCENCE OR
DECLINE phase
where manifestations
of disease subside
- profuse sweating
- heat loss in exceeding
heat production

6. SELF-LIMITING
INFECTIONS

Types of Infection
LOCALIZED microbes
remain confined to a
particular part of the body
- example: boils, abscesses
GENERALIZED
microorganisms and their
products are spread
generally over the body by
the blood or lymphatics
MIXED caused by 2 or more
organisms [primary infection
+ secondary infection]
FOCAL confined to a
restricted area from which
infectious material spreads
to other parts of the body
[infections of teeth, sinuses,
prostate glands]

INAPPARENT /
SUBCLINICAL doesnt
cause any detectable
manifestations
LATENT infection held in
check by the defensive
forces of the body but
activated when bodys
resistance is reduced
INOCULATION INFECTION
infection caused by
accidental or surgical
penetration of the skin or
mucous membranes
BACTERMIA bacteria
enters the blood but do
not multiply

SEPTICEMIA
bacteria enters the
blood and multiply
causing infection of
the blood [blood
poisoning]
PYEMIA pyrogenic
bacteria pus formers
in blood spreads to
different parts of the
body and focus on a
new form of disease

TOXEMIA toxins
liberated by bacteria
enters the blood
stream to cause
disease
- example: diphtheria
SAPREMIA
saprophytic bacteria
may grow in dead
tissues and produce
poison which might
be absorbed by the
body

Terminal chronic
wasting diseases.

Sporadic
occurring
occasionally in a
community

Endemic
constantly present
in a community.

Epidemic disease
attacking a large
number of people
in the community
in a short time

Immunity
A. First line of defense
1. Body parts and mechanisms that act to keep
microorganisms out of body tissues and bloodstream.
Interrupts the infection chain at the port of entry link
2. Include
a. skin
b. mucus membranes
c. cilia
d. tears
e. coughing or sneezing
f. pH of body areas

B. Second line of defense


1. Microorganisms gain entrance to the
body
a. Body forms White Blood Cells that kill
the invader by phagocytosis.
b. Interrupts the infection chain at the
susceptible host link

C. Third line of defense Immune response


1. Organism multiplies rapidly and cannot be destroyed fast enough
by phagocytosis
2. A specialized white blood cell lymphocyte forms antibodies
a. antibodies are tiny substances that attach to specific pathogens
and inactivates of destroys them.
b. Another form of lymphocyte acts as a memory cell, remembering
the pathogen over time, resisting further future infection.
c. This process of long-term protection is called immunity.
d. Antibodies are specific to disease.
e. Immunity does not prevent pathogens from entering the body, it
prevents
Pathogens from doing harm. 3. Interrupts the infection chain at the
susceptible host link.

D. Vaccination
1. A small dose of killed or weakened microorganisms or
similar substance that stimulates the third line of defense
(immune response).
2. Antibodies are produced.
3. In time every encounter with the microorganisms will
cause memory cells in the body to quickly produce
antibodies. This is active immunity.
4. Antibodies can also be injected for some diseases, which
gives immediate protection. This is passive immunity.
5. Immunity can be life-long or short term, depending on
the disease.