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CQIA Training

Marsha Ludwig-Becker
4/1/05
321-452-4863
Becker2@worldnet.att.net
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Certified Quality Improvement Associate


(CQIA)
The CQIA is an individual who has a basic
knowledge of quality tools and their uses and is
involved in quality improvement projects but does
not come from a traditional quality area.

Certified Quality Improvement Associate


(CQIA)
Requirements to take exam
Two years work experience or an AA degree
Membership in ASQ or another recognized
professional technical society, or registration as
a Professional Engineer or the signatures of two
personsmembers of ASQ or another
recognized professional society verifying that
you are a quality practitioner of the quality
sciences.
Pass written test: three hours, 100 multiple choice
questions on the Body of Knowledge (BOK)
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CQIA Training Objectives


In this program, you will learn about:
Quality basics
Definitions of quality
Benefits of quality
Quality philosophies
Systems and processes
Quality Planning
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
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Quality Basics
A. Quality Basics
Terms, Concepts, Principles
1. Qualitydefinition
2. Systems and processes
3. The importance of employees
4. Quality planning
5. Variation
B. Benefits of Quality
How each stakeholder benefits and how the benefits
differ
C. Quality Philosophiesunderstand and be able to apply
1. Deming (14 points)
2. Juran (Trilogy)
3. Crosby (Zero Defects)

Defining Quality and the Quality System


The Quality definition depends on the point of
view:
Customer: Fitness for use during the life of the
product
Manufacturer: Conformance to specifications
and no defects
It is no longer the little q or the quality
department
It is the big Q or the whole enterprise
Quality is defined by customers!!
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Definitions of Quality
Juran (1992) says it is fitness for use
Demings (1986) says Quality Control
does not mean achieving perfection. It
means the efficient production of quality
that the market expects
Crosby (1979) defines quality as
conformance to requirements

Definitions of Quality (Contd)


Fiegenbaum (1991) calls quality, The total
composite product and service characteristics of
marketing, engineering,manufacturing and
maintenance through which the product and
service in use will meet the expectations of the
customer
ASQ defines as The totality of features and
characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to
satisfy a given need
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Kano Believes in Perceived Quality


Defined by Kano in 1984:
Level 1: Basic need met
Level 2: Customer satisfied
Level 3:Customer delighted

Determinants of Quality
The product or service should meet
high quality standards for:
Reliabilityperform for the rated
life with predictable performance
Serviceabilitythe product should
be repaired or replaced in an easy
or convenient way
Maintainabilityrepair should be
easy
Safetyshould be safe and
provide security where applicable
Attractivenesscustomer may
desire

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Organizational Quality

Establish a quality council


Have quality policies
Have strategy quality goals
Have resources for control
Have measurements of performance
Have quality audits

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Systems and Processes


Process a set of interrelated resources and activities which
transform inputs with the aim of adding value
Inputs
Process
A value-added
transformation
involving
people and
other
resources

Outputs
Examples:
Invoices
Computer software
Clinical devices
Computer chip
Banking service
Subassembly process

This is a process!
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Three Types of Processes

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A System

Systema set of processes integrated together to perform a function


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Documentation for Processes


Written procedures, flowcharts
Work Instructions for people who need them
Flowcharts are excellent for defining
processes; you can add time,
responsibility for process.
People who are trained to do a job do
not need a written instruction, but you
may need a procedure to train a new
employee.
Think out of the box: Pictures.
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The Importance of Employees


A successful organization motivates
employees at every level
Employee empowermentwhere employees
are empowered, solutions to problems occur
more easily, performance increases. To
empower is to give someone power, or
authority to make their own decisions, to
contribute ideas, exert influence and be
responsible. (French 1999)
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The Importance of Employees (Contd)


Barriers to empowerment:
Employees
Unions (distrust)
Managementlack of training, or insecurity
Middle managementnot involved, lack of
understanding

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Quality of Work Life Initiatives

Job Simplification: Narrow job scope, less skills, highly


specialized. Individual decision-making is less.

Job Rotation: Moving employees among jobs involving different


functions or skills. Content can vary widely. Broaden
employees understanding of the company, employee must be
included in scheduling.

Job Enlargement: Combine related jobs and assign them to


one employee. Larger job with more tasks, more responsibility.

Job Enrichment: Hertzberg's theory of satisfiers and hygiene


factors for understanding job satisfaction and performance are
linked here. Jobs that are not interesting to the person will be
changed, more responsibility can be added, evaluating the
opinion of the employee may be added.
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Quality Planning
Strategic planning should include:
A vision and statement of purpose for the company
Review previously gathered environmental data
Consider corporate strengths and weaknesses
Make assumptions about factors,outside company
control
Establish appropriate goals
Develop steps (strategic and tactical) for
implementation
Evaluate performance to goals
Reevaluate the above steps for perpetual use
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Strategic Planning Process


Develop the vision
Develop the mission
Develop the guiding principles
Develop broad strategic objectives
Develop the specific tactics
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Quality Planning
Put your planning in a quality plan
Key terms: control plan, critical quality
characteristics, quality characteristic, quality
plan, quality planning

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Quality Planning (Contd)


Quality principlesbeliefs, truths, upon which other
things are based. ISO 9000 writers issued Eight (8)
quality principles:
Customer focus to
management
Leadership
People involvement for
decision-making
Process approach

System approach
Continual improvement
Factual approach
Mutually beneficial
supplier relationships

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Planning: Strategy vs. Tactical


Strategic goals cross many departments
and address the entire organization.
Examples are:
Company visions, mission statement
Effects of quality system: ISO,MBQNA,
QS-9000
Emergence of new competitors
Highlights of new products, technologies
or services
Field intelligence on the completion
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Planning: Strategy vs. Tactical (Contd)


Tactical goals are the detailed sub goals that are
derived from strategic goals. Examples are:
Status of customer complaints, returns, warranty
claims
Results of customer surveys
In-house scrap, rework, defect rates
Supplier ratings, deliveries

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Variation
The concept of Variation states that no two items will
be perfectly identical. This is a fact of life; even
identical twins differ somewhat. The concept is
basically a probability concept. (Juran/Gryna)1993.
Variation is a statistical term.

Histogram with Special Causes


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Variation/Variability
Management wants things done right, but they must
understand variability.
They must understand the difference between a
common cause and special causes.
Common cause is random or by chance, and
inherent in any process.
Special causes are referred to as assignable
because they cause a lot of variation.
When in statistical processing the process is in
control, it will show common cause variation; special
causes make it go out of control. (Someone must
then investigate and find what the cause was)
Juran/Gyrna (1993).
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Variability
SPECIFICATION BOXES
Related to SPC and Process Variation
1
2

PROCESS IS OUTSIDE OF
THE SPECIFICATION LIMITS

PROCESS IS WITHIN THE


SPECIFICATION LIMITS,
BUT THERE IS STILL LARGE
VARIATION

PROCESS IS STILL WITHIN


THE SPECIFICATION LIMITS
AND VARIATION HAS BEEN
FURTHER REDUCED

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A Specification is a document that contains requirements for a product or a service!

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


Supplier Quality Benefits
Opportunity to build long term
relationships
Shared mutually beneficial training and
information
More predictability in and certainty of
future orders
More predictability in scheduling and
shipping
More viable customers for their
products or services
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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Contd)
Community Quality Benefits
Organizations that can provide jobs
Organizations that pay property taxes
Organizations that increase property values
Products that make efficient use of all resources
Organizations that utilize environmentally friendly
methods

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Contd)
Employee Quality Benefits
Job security
Likelihood of pay increases
Enhancement of knowledge
and skills
Greater pride of workmanship
Individual self-fulfillment

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Contd)
External Customer Quality Benefits
Higher quality products
Products that are easy to use
Products that are reliable and easy to maintain
A product or service that adds value
Warranties that are honored

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Contd)
Organizational Quality Benefits
A good reputation in the business
community
Increased market share
An ability to charge premium prices
because of superior quality
An ability to attract top notch
employees
A higher stock price

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Contd)
Stockholder Quality Benefits
Increased stock value
Better returns on investment
Investment in a company that is technologically
advanced
An organization with a demonstrated ability to
improve
An investment that is cost effective

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Benefits of Quality to Different People


(Cont)
Illustration of Company Stakeholder Interactivity

Society

Internal Company
Processes

Customers

Suppliers

Stockholders or owners

Management and Employees

Stakeholders are those people who have an interest in the welfare and
operation of the company. They include stock holders, customers,
suppliers, company management, employees and their families, the
community and society.
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Malcolm Baldrige National Quality


Award (MBNQA)
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Criteria for Performance Excellence is a good
source for benchmarking against to see where your
company is.
Questions on the MBNQA are not in the CQIA
exam, but it is something you should know about as
a template for continuous improvement.
You can submit a self assessment without even
trying to compete for the award.
More info on the Baldrige is at
www.baldridge.nist.gov/eBaldrige/Step_One.htm
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The Baldrige National Quality Program


The 2004 MBNQA criteria with point values follow:
Numbe
r

Category

Point Value

1.

Leadership

120

2.

Strategic Planning

85

3.

Customer and market


focus

85

4.

Measurements,
Analysis, and
Knowledge
Management

90

5.

Human Resource
Focus

85

6.

Process Management

85

7.

Business Results

450

There are a total of 1000 points

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Philosophies
Understand philosophies, know how they differ and
be ready to apply.
Dr. W. Edwards Deming (1900-1993):
14 points
Dr. Joseph Juran(1904- ): Trilogy
Philip B. Crosby (1928-2001): Zero
Defects

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Demings 14 Obligations of Top


Management
1. Create constancy of purpose
2. Adapt to new philosophy managers must lead
3. Cease dependence on inspection
4. End awarding of business on the price taghave
single suppliers
5. Improve constancy (variation) decreases cost
6. Institute training on the job
7. Institute leadership
8. Drive out fear
9. Break down barriers between departments
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Demings 14 Obligations of Top


Management (Contd)
10. Eliminate slogans, targets, and things like zero
defects
11. Eliminate work standards ( substitute leadership)
Eliminate management by objective
12. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of the
pride of workmanship. (no number goals)
Remove barriers from management to pride of
workmanship (no annual merit rating or objectives)
13. Institute a vigor program of education and self
improvement
14. Everyone in the company must work to accomplish
the transformation.
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Jurans Trilogy
Planning, Control, and Improvement
Sporadic Spike
Original zone
Of Quality Control

Quality
Planning
(design)

Quality
Improvement

20%-

Operations
Begin

Cost of Poor Quality

40%--

Chronic waste

New Zone Of Quality


Control

Time

Lessons Learned
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Crosbys Zero Defects

Crosby defined quality as conformance to requirements.


He considered traditional quality control, acceptable quality limits
and waivers of substandard products to represent failure.
He felt companies with these approaches spent around 20% of
their revenues doing things wrong over and over again. For
services companies this percentage could go as high as 35%.
Zero defects means that the companys objective is doing
things right first time.
This can only be done, according to him, by top management
being responsible and encouraging everyone to improve
continuously.
Must train staff, and teach Preventative management.
Top management must lead and understand quality is a
management process.
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Crosbys 14 Steps to Quality Improvement


1.Management commitment -this is the key to make
everything happen
2. A quality improvement team- this team leads the quality
improvement; must be trained and proactive
3. Measurement - All processes must be measured
4. Calculating an ongoing cost of quality- With financial
management work out the cost of nonconformance
and keep track of it; look at savings to be made
5. Quality awareness Communication, managements
commitment, all employees must be aware
6. Corrective action Use SPC and problem solving
techniques to find root causes and eliminate them
7. Zero defects (ZD) planning Major thrust, have
speakers, make public and impressive
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Crosbys 14 Steps to Quality Improvement


(Contd)
8. Employee education Make sure everyone receives the same
education on the quality process
9. ZD Day Management makes a commitment in front of
everyone; very public ally
10.Goal Setting Set goals for the quality improvement team.
Put on a chart and advertise
11. Error Cause Removal Ask people for what is the problem
and the solution; choose method to analyze and reward.
12. Recognition of good work in the quality process Constantly
recognize people for a job well done
13. Quality Councils these are the quality professionals
brought together to learn from each other
14. Repetitiondo it again, chose a new quality improvement
team and start over
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Comparing Deming, Juran, and Crosby


Element

W.E. Deming

J.M. Juran

P. Crosby

Basic quality
orientation

Technical

Process

Motivational

What is quality?

Nonfaulty
systems

Fitness for use

Conformance to
requirements

Who is
responsible?

Management

Management

Management

Importance of
customer
requirements

Very important

Very important

Very important

Goal of quality

Continuous
Improvement

Continuous
Improvement

Continuous
Improvement
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Comparing Deming, Juran, and Crosby


Element

W.E. Deming

J.M. Juran

P. Crosby

Methods for
achieving quality

Statistical;
constancy of
purpose

Cost of quality;
14 point
quality trilogy:
program
planning, control
improvement

Chief elements of 14 point


implementation
program

Breakthrough
projects; quality
teams, councils

14 step
program; cost
of quality
maturity grid

Role of training

Very important
for managers
and employees

Very important
for managers
and employees

Very important
for managers
and employees

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References
1. Juran, J.M. (1988). Jurans Quality Handbook 4th ed., New York,
McGraw Hill
2. Deming, W.E. (1986). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, CAES.
3. Crosby, P.B. (1979).Quality is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain.
New York, McGraw-Hill
4. Figenbaum, A.V. (1991). Total Quality Control. 3rd ed. Revised. Fortieth
Anniversary edition. New York McGraw-Hill
5. Kano, from Ludwig, Becker, Marsha(1998). Electronics Quality
Management Handbook, New York, McGraw-Hill
6. French, W. & Bell, Jr., C.(1999). Organizational Development:
Behavioral Science Interventions for Organizational Improvement, 6th
ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice-Hall

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References (Contd)
7. Goetsch, D.L. & Davis, S.B. (2000). Quality Management,
Introduction to Total Quality Management for Production,
Processing and Services, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ,
Prentice-Hall
8. Schermerhorn,Jr., J.R. (1993). Management for Productivity,
4th ed., New York, John Wiley and Sons
9. Wortman, B.,(2001). CQIA Primer, West Terre Haute, IN,
Quality Council of Indiana
10. Juran, J.M. & Gryna, F.M. (1993). Quality Planning and
Analysis, 3rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill

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