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OME201101 GSM BTS312

Hardware Structure
ISSUE 3.3

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved

Objectives

Upon completion this course, you will be


able to:

Know the functions and features of


BTS

Master the BTS hardware structure

Master the signal processing of BTS

Internal Use

References

Internal Use

31013229-BTS312 User Manual-(V4.01)

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Features and Functions


Um interface

PSTN
ISDN
PSPDN

TUP, ISUP

M900/M1800 BSC
MS

Other MSC/VLR

M900 BTS
A interface

M900/M1800 MSC/VLR
MAP
MAP

X.25/ LAN
M1800 BTS

X.25/ LAN

M900 BTS
HLR/AUC/EIR

MS
M900 BTS

MSC: Mobile Switching Center


HLR: Home Location Register
AUC: AUthentication Center
VLR: Visitor Location Register

Internal Use

OMC

SMC&VM

BSC: Base Station Controller SMC: Short Message Center


BTS: Base Transceiver Station VM: Voice Mailbox
MS: Mobile Station
OMC: Operation/Maintenance Center
EIR: Equipment Identify Register

Features and Functions

High integration and low power consumption


15 radio carriers at the Abis sharing an E1 for
transmission (15:1)
Integrating optical transmission equipment,
implementing optical fiber to BTS
Supporting the configuration of up to S24/24/24
and facilitating expansion
1-minute fast startup

Internal Use

Features and Functions

Supporting GSM900,DCS1800,EGSM,RGSM
GSM PHASE I/PHASE II and GPRS
Supporting short message cell broadcast
and point to point short message
Supporting baseband hopping
and RF hopping
Supporting the EFR and DTX
Supporting A5/0, A5/1 and A5/2 encryption
Supporting half rate
Internal Use

BTS312 Cabinet and Boards


BTS312 Cabinet and Boards:

TDU

SWITCH BOX

CDU: combiner & divider unit

FAN BOX
C

TRX: transceiver unit


PMU: power monitoring unit
TMU: Timing/Transmission &

AIR BOX

CDU

Management Unit
TRX

TES: transmission extension

FAN BOX

air/fan

Internal Use

power supply unit

TTT TT

MM E E E

U U

UU S U U

AIR BOX

PSU: power supply unit

TEU: transmission extension unit


TDU: time distribution unit
Common
equipment

Power Supply

Three modes for BTS312 power supply:


220VAC Used for the AC power supply cabinet, with
the AC/DC module and batteries attached;

-48VDC

Used for the DC power supply cabinet with


the DC/DC module and no battery;

+24VDC Used for the DC power supply cabinet, with no

AC/DC module or DC/DC module, nor any battery.

Internal Use

Power Supply System

220VAC IN

-48VDC IN

Anti-lightning
Power
distribution

+24VDC IN

EMI
filter
EMI
filter

Monitoring
unit PMU

Load

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

EMI
filter

Internal Use

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

26VDC OUT

DC contacter

Battery group

AC/DC
(DC/DC)
module

Fuse

PMU

PMU (Power Monitoring Unit) structure


AC power supply

AC/DC

AC/DC

AC/DC

AC/DC

Load
Fan

Power monitoring
unit PMU

Fuse
Battery

Internal Use

PSU Configuration

The configuration of PMU:


mode

capacity (TRX)

boards (PSU)

boards (PMU)

24VDC

1~12

-48VDC

1~3

4~6

7~9

10~12

1~3

4~6

7~9

10~12

220VAC

Internal Use

notes
One PSU for
backup.

FMU
Fan Monitoring Unit (FMU)

Providing fan feed


Fan revolution
speed control
Alarm detection
Interfaces

Internal Use

24V power supply input


interface
Fan box power supply
input interface
Fan fault alarm detection

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Hardware Structure of BTS312

DATA BUS/CONTROL_BUS/TIMING_BUS
External External
control alarm
E1

TMU

TRX

TRX

CDU

To antenna

CDU

To antenna

FH_BUS

Opt. fiber
xDSL TEU

PSU

TES

TRX

CDU

To antenna

PMU
Common unit

Internal Use

TRX unit

Antenna feeder unit

TMU
External synchronous clock

BSC

BIU

MMI manmachine
interface
External
Alarming
control

Extended BIU
DBUS Internal data bus

OMU

EAC

MCK

TDU

Internal
clock bus

Function:
Timing
Transmission

Standby MCK

Internal Use

CBUS Internal control bus

Management

Panel of TMU

Internal Use

Indicators on TMU

Indicator Name

Color

PWR

Green

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

RUN

Green

Running State

Flash(0.5Hz): Normal
On or Off: Abnormal

Flash

LI1,2,3,4

Green

E1 Transmission

On: Local Alarm


Flash: Remote Alarm
Off: Normal

Off

M/S

Green

Master/Slave
indication

Slow flash(1HZ): Master


Quick flash(2Hz): Slave

Phase
identification
indicator

On: Free oscillation


Quick flash(4Hz): Catching
Slow flash(1Hz): Locked
Off: Abnormal

PLL

Internal Use

Green

Meaning

Explanation

Normal State

On

Master Board: Slow flash


Slave Board: Quick flash

Slow flash

TRX Module Structure


FH_BUS

DBUS
CBUS

TDP
SCP

DSP

PAU

CUI
RCU

TIMING_BUS
Clock processing part
RPU
TBPU

Internal Use

send Main
receiver
Diversity
receiver

Functions of TRX

Baseband speech processing


Um and Abis interface signaling processing
Modulation and demodulation
RF signal amplification

Internal Use

Functions of TRX

Power amplifier unit (PAU) (output 46dBm/APC)

Over standing wave alarm:

Internal Use

Over-temperature alarm:

Panel of TRX

Internal Use

Indicators on TRX

Indicator Name

Color

PWR

Green

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

RCP

Green

SCP Running
State

Flash(0.5Hz): Normal
On or Off: Abnormal

Flash

RDP

Green

DSP Running
State

Flash(0.5Hz): Normal
On or Off: Abnormal

Flash

FAIL

Red

Alarm Indicator

On: Alarm
Off: No alarm

Internal Use

Meaning

Explanation

Normal State

On

Off

TDU

Function:Time
Distributing Unit

Providing clock channels


in one synchronous cell
Transferring the E1 signals
in the local cabinet
Providing alarming channels
Bus connection

Internal Use

Position of TDU in the Rack

Internal Use

BUS Topology
TBUS
CBUS1

TMU0

TRX0

CDU
0-11

...

PMU
0-1

TMU0

CBUS2

CBUS2

CBUS2

DBUS12

DBUS12

DBUS12

TRX0

TRX23

TES

Basic Cabinet Group

Internal Use

TMU0

TMU1

...

TRX23

TRX0

...

TRX23

FHBUS

FHBUS

FHBUS

CBUS3

CBUS3

CBUS3

Alarm
Box

CDU
0-11

PMU
0-1

Extension Cabinet Group

CDU
0-11

PMU
0-1

Extension Cabinet Group

Cabinet-top Connectors

(1) Data bus interface (DCF1)

(2) External alarm interface (EAC1 and


EAC2)

(3) 120 E1 interface (TME1)

(4) Built-in optical transmission E1


interface (TRA1, TRA2, TRB1,
and TRB2)

(5) Storage battery


management signal
cable interface
(PWRC)

(6) Clock interface (CKB1 and CKB2)

Internal Use

(7) Data bus interface (DCF2)

(8) 75 E1 interface (TX and RX)

(9) External synchronous


clock interface
(SYNC)

(10) Grounding cable interface for


combined cabinet (SHELLGND)

(11) External power cable


interface

(12) Feeder input interface (ANT)

(13) Cascading interface of CDU combined cabinet (CDU)

Cabinet Group

Internal Use

Each BTS312 cabinet can accommodate 12


carriers. When the number of cell carriers is over
12, multiple cabinets need to be equipped,
classified as basic cabinet and extension cabinet.
They form a cabinet group (or equipment group).
One group consists of 2 cabinets at most
One set of BTS312 equipment group can contain
two cabinets (24 TRXs).
For the maximum capacity site, there are three
groups with 72 TRXs.

Cabinet Extension Cabling

Green colored sockets installed with matching connectors for resistance


termination

CKB1 CKB2
DCF1

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

Extension Cabinet

DCF1

Basic Cabinet

Basic Cabinet Group

Internal Use

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

DCF1

CKB1 CKB2
DCF2

Basic Cabinet

DCF1

DCF2

Extension Cabinet

Extension Cabinet Group

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Signal Type

Internal Use

Speech
Signaling
LAPD Signaling
OML
RSL
LAPDm Signaling
Clock

Speech Processing

BSC-TDU-TMU-DBUS-TRX-CDU-ANT.-MS

External synchronous clock

BSC
MMI manmachine
interface
External
Alarming
control

DBUS

BIU

CBUS

OMU

S
C
P

D
S
P

C
U
I

Clock process

EAC

MCK

TBPU

TDU
TBUS

Standby MCK
Internal Use

FH_BUS

TDP

PAU
RCU

RPU

C
D
U

OML Processing

BSC-TDU-TMU-CBUS-TRX (or PMU,CDU),

External synchronous clock

BSC
MMI manmachine
interface
External
Alarming
control

DBUS

BIU

CBUS

OMU

S
C
P

D
S
P

C
U
I

Clock process

EAC

MCK

TBPU

TDU
TBUS

Standby MCK
Internal Use

FH_BUS

TDP

PAU
RCU

RPU

RSL and LAPDm Signaling

BSC-TDU-TMU-DBUS-TRX-CDU-ANT.-MS

External synchronous clock

BSC
MMI manmachine
interface
External
Alarming
control

DBUS

BIU

CBUS

OMU

S
C
P

D
S
P

C
U
I

Clock process

EAC

MCK

TBPU

TDU
TBUS

Standby MCK
Internal Use

FH_BUS

TDP

PAU
RCU

RPU

C
D
U

Clock Processing

BSC (or External Clock) -TDU-TMU-TDU-TBUS-TRX

External synchronous clock

BSC
MMI manmachine
interface
External
Alarming
control

DBUS

BIU

CBUS

OMU

S
C
P

D
S
P

C
U
I

Clock process

EAC

MCK

TBPU

TDU
TBUS

Standby MCK
Internal Use

FH_BUS

TDP

PAU
RCU

RPU

TBUS Connection
Clock bus connection in a synchronous cell

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

T T

U U

P S U

P S U

Basic
Extension

cabinet


cabinet

Basiccabinet
group

Internal Use

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

P S U

Basiccabinet

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

C
D
U

C
D
U

T T

X X

P S U

Extension

cabinet

Extension

cabinet
group

Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 System Components
Chapter 3 Signal Processing
Chapter 4 Antenna and Feeder System

Internal Use

Antenna and Feeder System

CDU and Antenna System


Lightning
arrester
Lightning
arrester

Combiner & divider unit

Transceiver
Internal Use

TTA(optional
)

TTA(optional
)

Transceiving
antenna

Diverse
Receiving
antenna

CDU

TX1
TX2
TX-COMB
TX-DUP
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4
HL-out
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4
HL-in
RXD-out

Internal Use

Combiner

Coupler

TX/RX-ANT

Distributor

Distributor
RXD

CDU

coupler

Combiner

Internal Use

coupler

Distributor

Distributor

Combiner

Distributor

Distributor

Indicators on CDU

Indicator Name

Color

Meaning

Explanation

Normal State

Green

Power

On: Normal
Off: Abnormal

VSWR1

Yellow

Standing wave
ratio alarm

On: VSWR is greater than 1.5 and less


than 2.5
Off: Normal

VSWR2

Red

Standing wave
ratio alarm

On: VSWR is greater than 2.5


Off: Normal

Off

TTA

Red

TTA current
indication

On: TTA current out of range


Off: Normal

Off

LNA

Red

LNA current
indication

On: LNA current out of range


Off: Normal

Off

POWER

Internal Use

On

Flash

Alarm Test

Standing wave testing function:

When the tested standing wave exceeds the preset


threshold (1.5:1 or 2.5:1), CDU will give
corresponding alarms and indications.

Testing the internal amplifier and the tower amplifier,


CDU reports the alarms to TMU.

Internal Use

EDU

EDU indicators are the same as those of CDU

TX1

RX1
RX2

Internal Use

TX/RX-ANT1

Coupler

TX/RX-ANT2

Distributor

TX1

RX3
RX4

Coupler

Distributor

SCU

Four carriers are combined and output through 3dB bridges and the plug
loss is 6.8dB.

TX1
3dB
Bridge
TX2
3dB
Bridge

TX3
3dB
Bridge
TX4
Tx_Comb
Internal Use

2CDU+SCU

coupler

coupler

Combiner

Internal Use

Distributor

Distributor

Combiner

Combiner

Distributor Distributor

Combiner Combiner

Feeder

Internal Use

There are several forms for the main feeder:


7/8 inch
CABLE LOSS=0.043dB/m
5/4 inch
CABLE LOSS=0.032dB/m
1/2-inch super-flexible jumpers
CABLE LOSS=0.11dB/m
Used between the antenna and the main feeder
Between the antenna and the tower amplifier
Between the cabinet and the lightning arrester

Feeder

RF device of BTS
Jumper/TTA
Connector (DIN)
DIN connector

Dual polarization
antenna

Lightning arrester
TTA

jumper

Antenna
connector
DIN
Lightning arrester/feeder
BTS rack
connector DIN
Jumper connector DIN
Internal Use

Jumper/TTA connector
DIN

Antenna Technology

Antenna gain
Antenna Pattern
Polarization
Diversity technology

Internal Use

Antenna Gain

Antenna gain indicates the antenna feature of radiating electromagnetic


waves in specific directions.
Normally, the higher the gain, the stronger the far field strength and the
greater the effective coverage.

A
B

Internal Use

GainA>GainB

Antenna Gain Unit

dipole

isotropic

For example:
2.15dB

Internal Use

3dBd = 5.15dBi

Antenna Pattern

The antenna pattern describes the radiating abilities of antennas in all


directions.
Refers to the half-power angle in the horizontal plane.

360

Omni Antenna
Internal Use

120

90

Directional antenna

65

Antenna Pattern

Omni antenna
lobe

Direction
antenna lobe

Internal Use

Polarization

Two main types of polarization:


Vertical polarization
Horizontal polarization
The types of antenna divided
by polarization:
Single polarization antenna
Vertical polarization for GSM
One port for one feeder
Bi-polarization antenna
+45 degree and -45 degree
Two ports for two feeders

Internal Use

Polarization

Internal Use

Vertical polarization

Horizontal polarization

+ 450 polarization

- 450 polarization

Polarization

Vertical/Horizontal

Internal Use

slop (+/- 45)

Polarization

Omni Antenna

Internal Use

Single polarization
directional antenna

Bi-polarization
directional antenna

Diversity Technology

Polarization diversity
Types of
diversity:

Save antenna
Space diversity
d>10 wavelength

Frequency diversity
Frequency hopping
Internal Use

Improve the signal level via diversity

distance

Internal Use

Lightning Arrester

Lightning Arrester is used to prevent the equipment from being


damaged by the lightening current inducted by the core line of the
feeder.

CDU and Antenna System


Lightning
arrester
Lightning
arrester

Combiner & divider unit

Transceiver
Internal Use

TTA(optional
)

TTA(optional
)

Transceiving
antenna

Diverse
Receiving
antenna

TTA (Optional)

The tower amplifier is installed next to the receiving antenna.


It can be used to increase the receiving sensibility of the base
station.
consisting of:
Triplex filter
Low noise amplifier
Feeder

Internal Use

TTA (Optional)

Simplex TTA

duplex TTA

triplex TTA

triplex TTA
TX filter
BTS

RX filter

RX filter
Low noise amplifier

DC
Internal Use

antenna

bypass

Bias Tee

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved