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Chapter 8

An Introduction into
Metabolism
Remember that cells (and organisms)
must obey the physical laws of the
universe

and what are those


laws
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor
destroyed
(ie: the amount of energy is
constant)
BUT, energy can be transformed from
one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Every energy transfer or
transformation increases the
entropy (disorder) of the universe.

The problem
Cells and organisms are ordered
and must maintain that order.
Ie: This can not
happen
indefinitely

The forms of energy


Energy is the capacity to cause
change
1) Kinetic
(one example - Heat)
2) Potential
(one example - Chemical)

Energy and metabolism


Metabolism - sum of all chemical reactions
(energy conversions) in an organism.
Catabolism - sum of reactions that break things
down
(ie: starch >>> glucose)
Anabolism - sum of reactions that build things
up
(ie: glucose >>> starch)
OR actions that require NRG input (work)

Free-energy change
(G) of reactions tells
us whether a metabolic
reaction occurs
spontaneously

Free Energy Change (G) in


Reactions
G = G

final state

-G

initial state

-G

Loss of free energy during the


reaction
(Spontaneous or Catabolic or Exergonic
Reaction)
Downhill Reaction

G = G

final state

-G

initial state

+G

Gain of free energy during the


reaction

(Non-spontaneous or Anabolic or Endergonic


Reaction)

Uphill Reaction

Equilibrium and metabolism


Flow of NRG
Closed vs. Open
systems
Single step vs. Multistep systems
Metabolism is a flow
of energy via multistep chemical
reactions
NET flow is exergonic
You reach equilibrium
only when you die

ATP powers cellular


work by coupling
exergonic reactions to
endergonic reactions

How to get uphill reactions to


go:

Coupled Reactions
Exergonic

Energy
Released
&
Harveste
d!

Endergonic
Energy
Required

Coupled reactions
Exergonic and Endergonic reactions are
coupled

(Overall G is negative [spontaneous])

ATP couples catabolic and anabolic


reactions
High energy
bonds in ATP
Can be recycled

NRG

ATP couples catabolic and anabolic


Ex
reactions

er
go
ni
cR
ea
ct
io
ns
ADP +
ATP

Pi

End
e

rgo
n

ic R
eac
tion
s

Overall (couple
d)

ATP couples reactions


and powers CELLULAR WORK
Mechanical Work

Transport Work

Chemical Work

ATP couples reactions


and powers CELLULAR WORK
by
phosphorylatin
g other
molecules,
which become
more reactive
(less stable)

Review: Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in the
body.

A chemical reaction
dissected
Reactants/Products
Reactant
s

Products

A chemical reaction
dissected
Look at free NRG (G)
of
Reactants
Products
Transition state

Transition state is a
higher energy state
Activation energy
EA

Enzymes are important


contributors to metabolism by
assisting in chemical reactions

Enzymes role in chemical


reactions
Enzymes are proteins
Specific enzymes act on specific
substrates
Often end in the suffix ase
Substrate
Reactant
s

Enzyme

Products

Enzymes role in chemical


reactions

Catalyze chemical reactions

Catalysts increase rate of reaction, not


direction
Are NOT consumed in the reaction
Substrate
Reactant
Products
Enzyme
s

How enzymes work


Enzyme-substrate
complex
Active site
- Determines specificity
- Induced fit
- Shape change

Enzymes lower activation


energy
Speeds up reactions!

Hmmmm, why do reactions have


an EA in the first place?
Consider the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics:
What would quickly happen to
proteins (or DNA, or any other
complex molecule) that are rich in
free energy without the EA
requirement?

Factors affecting enzyme


activity
Temperature and pH affect rate
Cofactors
Inorganic ions:
Iron, Zinc, etc.

Coenzymes
Organic molecule:
most vitamins

External Inhibitors
From outside the body
Like a toxin/poison

Allosteric regulators
Purposeful regulation

External Enzyme Inhibitors


(Inhibitor)

Allosteric site

Reversible or Irreversible
Attachment

Regulation of enzyme activity


Purposeful regulation of
enzyme activity helps
control metabolism
(ie: If ALL of the chemical reactions
of a cell were occurring ALL of the
time, it would be chemical chaos)

Internal Enzyme Regulation

Purposeful regulation using natural regulators

Allosteric
regulation
Active form
Oscillation

- Noncompetitive
regulation
- Usually involves multiple
subunit enzymes

Inactive form

- Reversible

Activation

Allosteric activator

Inhibition

Allosteric inhibitor

Cooperativity

Substrate
(not really allosteric
control)

Allosteric Regulation and Feedback


Inhibition

Regulation by
Localization
Localization of enzymes used in
common pathway
- Increases speed
- Greater control

Self-quiz
In this branched metabolic pathway, a red arrow
with a minus sign symbolizes inhibition of a
metabolic step by an end product (feedback
inhibition):

If Q ONLY was present in high concentrations at


this point in time, which reactions would
continue?
a) L -> M
c) L -> N
e) R -> S