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CHAPTER 2 :

SOIL STRENGTH
BEHAVIOUR G G G G 2

LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of the lecture, student should be able to
understand:
Concept of total and effective stresses, pore
pressure and excess pore pressure
Concept of friction model and soil shear strength.
Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear strength
parameters
Determination of shear strength parameters of
soils shear box and triaxial test

INTRODUCTION
WHAT is STRENGTH??

Strength is a measure of maximum stress state


that can be induced in a material without it failing
It is used loosely to mean the shear strength

EXAMPLES OF FAILURE OF SHEAR


STRENGTH

Cameron Highland

Pulau Pinang

Gerik - Lenggong

Jln Kuala Lipis-Gua Musang

Jalan Mong Gajah-Kedah

Jalan Tunku

Presint 9, Fasa II, Putrajaya

TANAH RUNTUH JENIS CETEK


Tidak dapat dibuktikan
secara teori

Precint 9, Putrajaya 2009

Laluan 82.1-Tamparuli,Ranau,Sabah

Sepangar, Sabah

Tmn Puncak Pusing Indah, Tronoh, Perak

Ulu Yam Baru-2002

GUA TEMPURUNG, 1996 1 DIED


SHALLOW LANDSLIDES
MALAYSIA

Bukit Antarabangsa (6 December


2008)
hs s
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D
5 nga ed
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B
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14 est
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SHEAR STRENGTH
The internal resistance per unit area that the
soil mass can offer to resist failure and sliding
along any plane inside it.
The maximum value of shear stress that may be
induced within the soil mass before the soil yields
Soil generally failed in shear. At failure, shear
stress along the failure surface () reaches the
shear strength (f).

SHEAR STRENGTH
Shear strength within a soil mass is
due to the development of frictional
resistance between adjacent
particles
The force transmitted between two
bodies in static contact can be
resolved into two components:
a normal component N,
perpendicular to RS, and a
tangential or shear component T,
parallel to it
The soil grains slide over each other
along the failure surface. There is
no crushing of individual grains.

N
T

R
T
N

WHY SHEAR STRENGTH?


Soils generally fail in shear

SHEA
R
FAILU
RE

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface reaches the shear
strength.

SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL

SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL

MOHR COULOMB
The strength envelopes is a graphical
representation of a particular limiting condition of
shear stress/normal stress ratio
The failure envelope is known as the MohrCoulomb failure envelope
The failure envelope is a curved line
For most soil mechanics problems, it is sufficient
to approximate the shear stress on the failure
plane as a linear function of the normal stress
The linear function is known as Coulombs Law.

FAILURE ENVELOPE

MOHR COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION

MOHR COULOMB
f= c + tan
where
f - the shear strength of the soil
c the cohesion of the soil which represents the attraction
forces between the particles
the normal stress applied to the soil
the angle of internal friction of the soil

MOHR COULOMB
In saturated soil, the total normal stress at a
point is the sum of the effective stress, and
pore water pressure, u

= + u
The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion,
expressed in terms of effective stress, will be
as follows

f = c + tan

COHESION (C)

(a) Cohesionless Soil (c = 0) (b) Pure cohesive soil ( = 0) (c) Cohesive-frictional soil (c-

c for sand and inorganic silt is 0


c for normally consolidated clays
can be approximated at 0
c for overconsolidated clays are
greater than 0

INTERNAL ANGLE OF FRICTION


Typical values of internal angle of friction, are
given in table below :

ANALYSES OF STRESS USING MOHRS


CIRCLE
Mohr circle of stress provides a convenient method of
analyzing two-dimensional stress states
As stated by Mohr-coulomb failure criterion, failure from
shear will occur when the shear stress on a plane
reaches a value given by the coulomb law (f)
Normal stress induced
are y and x, where y
> x. So this have
cause shear
Figure 1: Inclination of failure plane in
soil with major principal plane

ANALYSES OF STRESS USING MOHRS


CIRCLE

Figure 2: Mohrs
circle and failure
envelope

'1 = major principal stress


'3 = minor principal stress
The failure plane EF makes an angle
with the major principal plane
To determine the angle and the
relationship between major and
minor principal stress, refer Figure 2
Fgh is the failure envelope define by
the coulomb law relationship
It can be shown that bad = 2 = 90
+ , or
= 45 + /2

SHEAR STRENGTH TEST

Shear Box Test


Triaxial Test
Unconfined Compression Test
Vane Shear Test