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CHAPTER 13

Meiosis and
Sexual Life Cycles
Offspring acquire genes from
parents by inheriting
chromosomes

Asexual vs. Sexual


Reproduction
Asexual
Clone

Sexual
2 parents
Gametes
Diversity in the
NEXT generation

Fertilization and meiosis


alternate in sexual life cycles

Haploid (n) vs. Diploid (2n)


Haploid (n)
Example:
Chromosome 1
(2n)

vs.

Diploid
Chromosome 1

Non-duplicated
chromosome
(condensed)

Mom

Dad

Duplicated
chromosome

Homologous
Chromosomes

Sets of chromosomes in humans (2n)


autosomes
sex chromosomes (X and Y)

Behavior of the chromosome sets in humans


Mom (1 set)
(haploid egg)

Dad (1 set)
(haploid sperm)

Diploid You!

Making haploid cells


in sexual life cycles
Meiosis makes haploid cells NOT always gametes

You do NOT need to know the three types of sexual life cycles

Meiosis reduces the number of


chromosome sets from
Diploid to Haploid
AND
Contributes to
genetic diversity in the new cells

Stages of Meiosis
Chromosomes divide
once
Cell divides twice
Meiosis I
Separates homologous
chromosomes (makes
haploid cells)
Creates genetic diversity
(2 mechanisms)
Meiosis II
Separates duplicated
chromosomes

Meiosis I - Making haploid cells


Separate homologous
chromosomes
(still duplicated)
in
Anaphase I
Amount of DNA

Number = # of chromosomes per cell

46
46
23

P-I

A-I

P-II

Separating duplicated chromosomes

Anaphase II

Number = # of chromosomes per cell

Amount of DNA

Meiosis II

46
23
23
P-II

A-II

Final cells

The stages of meiosis

Meiosis I
Separates
homologous
chromosomes (makes
haploid cells)
Creates genetically
different cells

Meiosis II
Separates sister
chromatids

Meiosis I

Prophase I and Metaphase I


Prophase I
Tetrad formation
Ciasmata
formation
(crossing over)
Metaphase I
Tetrads line up
Attached to
spindle at
kinetochores

Anaphase I, Telophase I and


Cytokinesis
Anaphase I
Tetrads split
(homologous
chromosomes move to
opposite poles)
Exchange of genetic
information possible
(end result of crossing
over)

Telophase I
Some decondensation

Meiosis II
(cells start Meiosis II as haploid cells)

Separates duplicated chromosomes


Very similar to mitosis

(remember that you are starting with a haploid cell)

Meiosis I creates genetic diversity in


new cells (via 2 mechanisms)
(1) Independent assortment

Meiosis I creates genetic diversity in


new cells (via 2 mechanisms)
(2) Chiasma formation and crossing over

After a complete round of


meiosis (meiosis I and II)
You have
How many cells?
Are they haploid or diploid?
Are the cells genetically the same as or
different from the starting cell?

Genetic diversity!

Genetic variation in sexual life


cycles
Meiosis contribution
Crossing over
Independent assortment (223 - 8 mil)

Non-meiosis contribution
Random fertilization (1 egg + 1
sperm) (8 mil X 8 mil) =

Wo!
64 trillion possibilities!

Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis


Mitosis

Meiosis