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CELL STRUCTURE

AND

CELL ORGANISATION
2.1 Cell Structure
and Function
CELL

Animal cell Plant cell

Animal cell and plant cell as seen under the
light microscope
Introduction to Cells
Cells are the basic units of organisms
Cells can only be observed under
microscope
Basic types of cells:

Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell
CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF
ANIMAL CELL
CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF ANIMAL
CELL
Contain 3 basic cell structures:

Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm with
organelles
Organelles
Very small size
Can only be observed under a
microscope
Have specific functions
Found throughout cytoplasm
Surrounding the Cell
Cell membrane
• Made of protein and
phospholipids
• Forms a boundary
which separates the
content of the cell
from outer
environment.
Cell or Plasma Membrane
Cell membrane

• Controls the movement
of materials into and
out of the cell
• Selectively permeable
Plant Cell
Cell wall
Made of cellulose which
forms very thin fibers
Strong and rigid
Large empty spaces present
between cellulose fibers
Freely permeable
Found in plant cells
Plant Cell
Cell wall
Protect and support the
enclosed substances
(protoplasm)
Resist entry of excess
water into the cell
Give shape and provides
mechanical support to the
cell
Protects from rupturing due
to the excessive intake
of water
Cytoplasm of a Cell
Cytoplasm

Jelly-like substance
enclosed by cell
membrane
Provides a medium for
chemical reactions to
take place
More on Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
• Contains organelles to
carry out specific jobs
• Examples: chloroplast &
mitochondrion
Control Organelle

Nucleus
• Controls the normal
activities of the cell
• Bounded by a
nuclear membrane
• Contains chromosomes
More on the Nucleus

Nucleus
• Each cell has fixed

number of
chromosomes that carry
genes
• Genes control cell
characteristics
Nucleolus
• Cell may have 1 to 3
nucleoli
• Inside nucleus
• Disappears when cell
divides
• Makes ribosomes that
make proteins
Vacuole
Vacuole
• Fluid-filled sac
surrounded by tonoplast
• Fluid called cell sap
• Contains Sugars,
proteins, minerals,
wastes, & pigments
Cell Powerhouse
Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
spherical shape
Site of Cellular respiration
Mitochondria

Active cells like muscles
have more mitochondria
Break down sugars
(glucose) to produce
energy (ATP)
Ribosomes
• Compact spherical
organnelles
• Attached to the
surface of Rough ER or
suspended freely in the
cytoplsm
• Consist of two subunit
• Synthesis protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Consists of a
network of
folded
membranes
forming
interconnected
tubules
• Membrane is continuous to
nuclear membrane
• Two types of ER
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

has ribosomes on
its surface
Transport
proteins made by
ribosome to
export.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

lacks ribosomes
site metabolic
reaction
Synthesis lipid and
detoxification of
drugs and poisons
Golgi apparatus
• Stacks of flattened
membranous sacs
• Functions as
processing, packaging
and transporting
centre of
carbohydrates,
protein, phospholipids
Transport
and glycoprotein
vesicle
• Have a shipping side & a receiving side
• Receive & modify proteins made by ER
• Transport vesicles with modified proteins
pinch off the ends
Lysosome
• Contain hydrolytic
enzymes
• Break down complex
organic molecule and worn
out cell parts for cells
• Programmed for cell death
(lyse & release enzymes to
break down & recycle cell
parts)
Centriole

• Near the nucleus
• Paired of small cylindrical structures
• Composed of complex arrangement of
microtubules
• Help cell divide
Plant Cell Organelles
Chloroplast
Contain the green pigment
chlorophyll
Traps sunlight to make to
make sugars (food)
[ convert solar energy to
chemical energy ]
Process called photosynthesis
The Density of Organelles in
Specific Cells
page 21 ( text book)

Type of cells Function Organelles found
abundantly in the
specific cells
Sperm cells Require large energy to propel
towards the uterus and Fallopian tube
during fertilisation.
Flight muscle Contract and relax to enable
cells in insect movements and flight
and birds
Cells in
meristems

Mesophyll
palisade