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Introduction to Automobile

The Layout

Tushar Anand
Mechanical Deptt.

Components of an Automobile
• The basic structure
• The power unit
• The transmission system
• The auxiliaries
• The controls
• The superstructure

• It consists of:– – – – – Frame The Suspension system Axles Wheels Tyres .The Basic Structure (Chasis) • This is the unit on which the other units are mounted.

. The conventional pressed steel frame to which all units are mounted 2. The integral or frameless construction. Frame • There consists of two distinct construction in common use: forms 1.1. in which the body structure is so designed so as to combine the functions of body and frame.

Advantages • Reduced weight and consequent saving in fuel consumption • Lower manufacturing costs • Increased stability of the automobile .Frameless .

Disadvantages • Reduction in strength and durability • Economical only if it is adopted in mass production • Increased cost in repairs • Convertible cars are difficult to design in frameless construction .

2. Suspension System • The objects of the suspension are: – To prevent the road shocks from being transmitted to the vehicle components – To safeguard the occupants from road shocks – To preserve the stability of the vehicle while in motion .

Suspension system Leaf Springs .

Suspension system • There are two distinct types of suspension systems: – The conventional system. in which there is no rigid axle beam and each wheel is free to move vertically . in which the rod springs are attached to a rigid beam axle. – The independent system.

Suspension system .

are beams supported at ends. may be on the rear or front.3. Axles • It is the wait carrying members. • Axles are subjects to different kinds of loads: – Vertical load due to self weight – A fore and after load due to driving and braking – Torque reactions due to drive and brake .

Wheels • Different types of wheels have been used in automobiles over generations according to the requirement  Wire-spoked wheels  Pressed steel wheels  Light alloy wheels .4.

either SI or CI • Gas turbines also have been used in vehicles • Now.The Power Plant (Engine) • The engine provides the power to move the vehicle • It generally consists of an IC engine. electric batteries for propelling the vehicle .

– Gear box.The Transmission System • The transmission system consists of a – Clutch. – Propeller shaft. and – Differential .

Layout of the transmission system .

The Transmission System • The functions of a transmission system are: – To disconnect the engine from road wheel when desired – To connect the engine to the driving wheels without shock – To vary the leverage between the engine and the driving wheels .

The Transmission System – To reduce the engine speed permanently in a fixed ratio – To turn the drive through a right angle .

The Transmission System • The various components which perform the above mentioned functions are: – Clutch:.Provides the necessary leverage variation between the engine and road wheels .To disengage the system from the engine and to engage without shock to road wheels – Gear box:.

Helps to attain different speeds at different wheels while taking a turn .The Transmission System – Universal joints:.Provide for the relative movement between the engine and the driving wheels due to flexing of road springs. – Differential:.

Different types of arrangements The different types of the arrangement of transmission could be • Front engine and front wheel drive • Rear engine and rear wheel drive • Front engine and four wheel drive .


. avoiding skidding tendency. iii. from the front engine (Front Wheel Drive) • A few advantages are: i. Better road adhesion. The propeller shaft is eliminated.Front engine FWD • The power is transmitted to front axles. This permits low chassis height ii. The pulls the car than pushing it.

FWD • A few disadvantages are: i. Constant velocity joints have to be used instead of universal joints . The whole arrangement over front wheels is complicated. ii.

Absence of propeller shaft allows decrease in chasis height. Better tractive forces up the grade ii. . Front axle construction is simplified iii.Rear engine RWD • The engine is placed at the rear and the rear wheels are the driven wheels • Advantages are: i.

Complicated linkage is required between the engine. cooling effect is reduced.RWD • The disadvantages are: i. Rear position of engine. ii. clutch and gearbox. iii. May lose balance at high speeds. .

. which divides the torque between front and rear wheels. all the four wheels are the driving wheels • It has got an extra transfer box. • Also there is a provision for disengaging the front wheels when not required.Front engine four wheel drive • Vehicles which operate on rough roads and unexpected road profiles.

4WD .

4WD • The main advantage of the 4WD is that when any wheels fall into a ditch or a hole. . they can be driven out with the help of other wheels or power being delivered to the same wheel • But this advantage can only at the cost of extra fuel consumption.

Thank You .