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• The religions practiced by the Indians
during British Rule:
1. Hinduism
2. Islam
3. Sikhism
4. Christanity
5. Buddhism

• Areas of Muslim Majority: 1. Punjab 2. • Majority were Hindus.• Muslims consisted of about 25% of the Indian population in 1945. Bengal .


Difference in ethnicities • Hindus believed in idol worship while muslims were monotheists. • Bhagavad Gita and Vedas Vs Koran • Hindus worshipped the cows while the Muslims ate cow meat • Muslims believed that all men were equal while Hindus had a caste system. • Different dialects .

Did muslims and hindus live together in harmony even though they were in one state? .

They were not allowed to drink or eat together 2. . They weren't allowed to intermarry. There were separate taps for drinking water. • Discrimination in society: 1.Society • Hindus and Muslims mixed very less with each other even if they were neighbours. Trains had different tanks of water . 4. 3.

History • Muslims and Hindus have had strained relations since medieval times. . • Many temples were destroyed and raided by Mughals. • The Muslims and Sikhs also were historic enemies. • Many Muslim invaders came and looted the hindu villages in the past.

• In 1920’s many riots took place between the two communities and temples and mosques were destroyed. . • Uniting these two communities was not an easy task. • Tension was common especially during festivals like Diwali and Muharram.• Communal riots between Muslims and Hindus were a common thing in India since early times.

Muslim League Party .Political Parties • The two most powerful parties of the time of British rule were: 1. Indian National Congress 2.

.Indian National Congress • Jawaharlal Nehru was the congress president in the year 1945. • Most of the supporters of the were Congress party were the Hindus.

• Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah • Was formed to protect the muslims from Hindu dominance since muslims were in minority .Muslim League Party • Founded in 1905.

P were muslims whereas the money lenders were predominantly Hindus. . Most of the financial support to INC was from the industrialists who were mostly Hindus. whereas the nawabs and land owners backed Muslim Leauge Party.Economic Scenario • A substantial percentage of land owners in U.

. • Indian National Congress demanded the British Parliamentary system of government in India which meant majority rule.Insecurities of Muslims • Muslims wanted a pure Islamic Society free from all other non-Islamic influences is established. The implementation of this simply meant the Hindus slavery of Muslims since they were in majority. • The Two Nation Theory played an important role for demanding a separate homeland .

• Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims in the subcontinent. Educational Syllabus was changed. industrial and services opportunities were occupied by Hindus. • The signs of Muslims. burnt and looted the properties and houses of Muslims. • Hindus. • Most of the business. . With Hindi being the nation wide language the need to protect Urdu was felt. past glory were damaged. with the consent of British during the Congress Ministries.

Muslims should have 25% representation in Central Legislature .Political Scenario • The Third all party conference held in may 1928 in Bombay delegated the responsibility of drawing up a constitution to a committee headed by Motilal Nehru. .In provinces where their population was greater than 10% proportionate representation for Muslims should be considered. • According to this report there shouldn't be any separate electorate for any community in legislature.

• This report was accepted by INC but rejected by the Muslim League. • This report negated the positive aspects of the Lucknow pact of 1916. .• Even though report called for a federal structure .the constitution it proposed was unitary with residual powers vested in the centre. which had accepted separate electorates for minorities.

• Some of his major demands were one–third Muslim representation in Central Cabinet. • Thus he failed to accommodate the anxieties of Muslim majority provinces in the centre. • But Congress rejected these demands. separate electorates for electing representatives of each community . .• In response to this report Jinnah drafted a 14 Points proposal .and to make Sindh a separate province. uniform autonomy for every state.

” • He even gave the philosophy of “Two Nation Theory” which inspired Jinnah for partition. • Allama Iqbal .an influential Islamic thinker said: “The Muslims of India are the only Indian people who can fitly be described as a nation. .• Various influential Muslim leaders had already started thinking of a separate Muslim majority state.

• But Nehru rejected the offer and declared that the only two major political powers in India were “British and Congress”. • In UP and Bombay legislatures Jinnah offered support to INC to form coalition government. .P only if it dissolved itself and joined Congress.INDIAN PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS .1937 • Results of the 1937 elections was in favour of Congress. • He agreed to cooperate with the league in U.

• Clement Attlee the current Prime Minister wanted India to create a political assembly which would be responsible for making the Constitution .Elections 1945 • Provincial elections were held in India in the year 1945. . • Congress won the elections which further strained the relations between the Muslim League Party and the Congress.

. Group A:Hindu majority.Sindh.Baluchistan.CABINET MISSION PLAN • The cabinet mission plan envisaged a united India with a federal government consisting of three groups. Group B:Punjab. Group C:Bengal and Assam. • Cabinet mission plan was the last hope for a united India. • The Muslim League first approved to the plan but later rejected it.

the army (under British authority) entered the city and ended the looting and murder.000 seriously injured.000 had been killed and at least 20. . • More than 5. which they called "Direct Action Day.Direct Action Day •  Jinnah and his Muslim Party opted for political pressure through street demonstrations for August 16. 1946.“ •  It was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta. • After three days.


The year 1947 • On march 22. By then it was concluded that partition was the only solution.1947 Lord Mountbatten arrived in India as a new viceroy. . • Gandhi opposed the idea of partition and proposed that Jinnah be made the leader of a new administration for India. But Congress opposed to this idea .

May. June and July. • Sikhs refused to be a part of Muslim State. • Gandhi travelled to such places and tried to unite the communities but failed in this attempt. .• Violence erupted again .in the Punjab were almost 56% of the population was Muslim. • Violence and bloodshed continued through April.


• On July 15.  . "two independent dominions" would be established in India. Nehru agreed to Muslims’ demand for a Separate State.• On 20 April. to be known as India and Pakistan. 1947. 1947. Britain's House of Commons proclaimed that on August 15.