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Powders are bulk materials, an assembly of solids,
liquids and gases.
These are more complex than liquids or gases because:
• They consist of particles with a wide range of physical
• Their behavior is influenced by a wide range of external
variables many of which are imposed during processing.

Powders are complex and hence cannot be described
with a single trait.
They exhibit a range of behavioral traits any of which
could be influential in the processing environment, or to
the products critical quality attributes.
To accurately predict powder behavior it is essential to
measure a range of characteristics and the powder’s
sensitivity to every external variable.

Flow properties of powder is affected by two major
category of factors :

• Size
• Shape
• Surface Area
• Surface Texture
• Cohesion
• Density
• Porosity





The kinds of challenges confronted by industry vary enormously. but typical questions may include: • Can I use this grade of raw material without having any quality or production issues? • What is the optimum water content required to ensure final product attributes? • Will this powder flow out of my hopper in a consistent way? • How can we enhance the formulation so that we can make the process run faster and make more product without compromising the quality? • Is this powder so cohesive we wont be able to eliminate the agglomerates during mixing? .

less batch to batch variation • Better control of raw material quality. .Advantages of comprehensive powder characterization • Improved powder quality • Faster time to market • Reduced wastage • Better equipment utilization • More efficient manufacturing-fewer stoppages.


These are the major processes involved in the preparation of powders: ATOMIZATION-Involves atomizing of liquid metal by means of high speed medium striking the melt streaming through a nozzle. .

CHEMICAL METHODS • Metal powders may be prepared by reduction of metal oxides followed by mechanical crushing or hydrometallurgical method.COMMUNITION • Mechanical method of powder preparation involving breaking solid particles in mills. • Generally applied for the preparation of powders of brittle material. • May also be prepared using electrolytic deposition of metal followed by mechanical crushing. .


The various processes these powders undergo in various Industries include: • Mixing/Blending • Fluidization • Pneumatic Transportation • Aerosolisation • Storage • Granulation/Agglomeration • Consolidation • conditioning .

Determination of Rheology Various Characterization techniques .

FLOW PATTERNS Two types of flow pattern are typically employed for quantifying flowability: CONFINED FLOW UNCONFINED FLOW .

DYNAMIC METHODOLOGY • A precision ‘blade’. . or impeller. is rotated and moved downwards and upwards through the powder to establish a precise flow pattern.

• As the blade moves through the sample. representing the powder’s resistance to being made to flow in a dynamic state. . rheometer measures both rotational and vertical resistances. • Energy gradient represents energy measured for each mm of blade travelled(mJ/mm).• This causes the interaction of particles. • Work Done = Energy = (Resistance x Distance travelled) • Total Flow Energy.




A conditioning cycle is usually completed prior to every test. . in which case conditioning is not employed. The exception is where an intentionally consolidated sample is being evaluated.CONDITIONING  Effective mechanical process which aims to construct a homogenously packed powder bed. It’s aim is to ensure the powder is prepared for any test by first establishing a uniform stress in the powder bed and eliminating pockets of air or localized compaction.


permeability) .compressibility.QUANTIFYING EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL VARIABLES ON POWDER BEHAVIOUR • Aeration • Consolidation • Shear rate sensitivity • Wall friction • Hopper design • Bulk properties(density.

AERATION Aeration Ratio is the measure of powder sensitivity to aeration. Aeration Ratio=Basic Flowability Energy/Aerated Energy . Aerated Energy quantifies cohesive forces.


CONSOLIDATION Initial conditioning required followed by consolidation. Resulting Increase in resistance to flow is termed as” Consolidation Energy”. Consolidation Index is a measure of powder’s sensitivity to consolidation. Consolidation Index(CI)= Consolidation Energy/Basic Flowability Energy .


FF(Flow Function)=(Major principle stress/Unconfined yield stress) . Higher the shear stress for a given normal stress.FLOW RATE SENSITIVITY It is a static test as characterizes powder in a consolidated state. the less likely it is that the powder will yield and begin to flow. A varying shear force is applied to the upper powder layer until it exceeds powder’s shear strength and at this point powder yields and upper layer slips.


WALL FRICTION • This test provides measurement of sliding resistance between the powder and the equipment surface. . • Measurement principle same as shear flow test.



BULK PROPERTIES Conditioned bulk density Compressibility Permeability .





These substances have gas representing the dispersed phase and the liquid or solid as the continuous phase. It is a solid under low stress but flows like a liquid under high stress and hence belongs to the category of “Bingham fluids”.FOAMS A foam is a substance formed by trapping gases in a liquid or solid. .

MORE ON FOAMS… The viscosity is dependent on the structure of the foam and increases at decreasing bubble diameter and decreasing foam density. The structure of the foam may be described either by the blow ratio or by the density of the foam combined with the bubble diameter distribution. The bubble diameter distribution of the foam is also subject to continuous change. causing bubbles to coalesce. primarily due to gas diffusion from bubbles with a large internal pressure to those with a smaller internal pressure or as a result of ruptured lamellae. . For foams with a relatively low density an applied stress lower than the yield stress results in elastic behavior. g%20with%20Powders%20Page&p=MQ== o o 02727-powder-flow-property-ashish-education-ppt-power point / o 0are%20Powders%20Complex%20Page&p=MQ== o 20the%20FT4%20Page&p=MQ== o o o http://lawes.o %20reol%C3%B3gica%20de%20p%C3%B3s%20farmac%C3%AAutic os.pdf o o 9003064# o http:// o 5 o http ://link.