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Supporting Industrial Activities

and Environmental Concerns

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy
Associate Professor, Thapar University
Head, Deptt. Analytical Services, TCIRD
Patiala (PUNJAB) – 147004
INDIA
Industrial activities
Industrial units are involved in the transformation of
raw materials into value added products
Transformation involves
– Input of energy, water and chemicals
– Involvement of man-power (employees)
– Use of space, buildings, machinery and equipment,
etc.
– Generation of byproducts and wastes as well
Industrial activities
Transformation process has to be supported by
– Material inputs require procurement, storage,
processing and supply as and when required
– intermediates may require storing
– Products & byproducts require storage, packing &
shipment
– Wastes need proper collection, handling (storage,
processing/treatment and transportation) and disposal
– Machinery and equipment, and facilities require repair
and maintenance
– Employees require proper working environment (water
supply and sanitation, canteen, and other amenities)
Industrial activities
Industrial activities are divisible into core activities and
supporting activities
Core activities: activities directly associated with the
transformation of raw materials into products
• Vary from industry to industry - needs case by case analysis
Supporting activities: activities meant to support the core
industrial activities – include the activities associated with
• Water treatment and supply systems
• Electrical power and steam systems
• Storage
• Maintenance of machinery and equipment, and facilities
• Packaging (can also be viewed as core activity)
• Water supply and sanitation, canteen, and other facilities to
employees
• Wastes collection, handling (storage, processing/treatment and
transportation) and disposal
Systems for water supply
• Process water and drinking water systems
• Soft water system
• DM water system
• Chilled water system (energy system or water system!)
• Hot water systems
• Circulating cooling water system (energy system or water
system!)
• Backwater systems (including foul condensates and
steam condensates)
Process water and drinking water
supply system
Involves extraction of water from its sources, and
its storage, transportation, treatment and supply
as process water and as drinking water
• Extraction from source
– Ground water or surface water sources
– Pumping, storage and transportation
• Water treatment and supply
– Coagulation-flocculation-settling
– Filtration, storage and supply as process water
– Disinfection of filtered water, and storage and supply
as drinking water
river process
drinking water lime water
water
process
water Lime
alum Intake well prep.tank

Lime
Alum tank grit
dosing tank
Flash
mixing tank

underflow Clari-
sludge flocculator

Rapid sand
chlorine in filter
storage bullet for
back backwash water
wash
Treat. water
Chlorinator
reservoir

seepage
drinking water losses
process water
Environmental concerns
Raw water pumping and transportation
– Water losses through leakages during transportation
Raw water storage
– Water losses through seepages and overflows
Coagulation-flocculation-settling
– Coagulation and flocculation chemical consumption
(lime, alum and polyelectrolyte if used)
– Generation grit specially from lime slurry preparation
– Water consumption in the preparation of the chemical
solutions
Environmental concerns
Filtration
• Consumption of water for filter backwashing
• Generation of filter backwash water
Disinfection
• Consumption of chlorine or hypo or any other disinfectant
Process water/ drinking water storage and supply
• Seepage and overflow losses of water from storage
reservoirs
• Water leakages from the supply lines
Electrical energy consumption for running pumps
and other equipment associated with the water
treatment plant
Soft water system
Produced from process water by
– Ion-exchange process
– Reverse osmosis process
– Lime-soda process
Ion-exchange process based soft water plant
– Pressure filter
– Activated carbon column
– Ion-exchange resin beds
– Salt storage and handling system
– Soft water storage and supply
process water

backwash water Pressure common salt
to drain sand filter

Salt tank process
regeneration chemical water
wastewater to drain

Water Salt dose
rinse water softner
to drain (resin bed) tank

backwash water
to drain

soft water
Environmental concerns
Water consumption for
– backwashing of the the pressure filter, the activated
carbon column and ion-exchange resin beds
– Preparing the salt solution
– Regenerating the ion-exchange resin beds (chemical
draw, slow rinse and rapid rinse)
Wastewater generation
– From backwashing of pressure filter, activated carbon
column and ion-exchange resin bed
– From the regeneration of ion-exchange resin bed
during chemical draw, during slow rinsing and during
rapid rinsing
– Water loss as spills and leaks
Environmental concerns

• Consumption of salt as ion-exchange regeneration
chemical
• Consumption of
– Ion exchange resin for makeup and for replacing the
spoilt resin
– Activated carbon consumption for replacing the
exhausted carbon
• Power consumption for running the soft water plant
and supplying the soft water
• Generation of discarded spent activated carbon and
spoilt ion-exchange resin
Soft water system
Reverse osmosis based soft water plant
– Chlorination
– Iron removal column
– Dechlorination
– RO unit
– Soft water storage and supply
Process water

Chlorinating chemical Chlorination

Water for backwashing Iron removal Backwash water

dechlorinating agents Dechlorination

Cleaning chemicals RO process Wastewater from cleaning

Reject water

RO water
Environmental concerns
Reverse Osmosis basis soft water plant
– Water for cleaning of the RO unit
– Chlorinating chemicals and dechlorinating agents for
chlorinating and dechlorinating the water
– Water for backwashing the iron removal column
– Power for pumping water through the RO unit
– Chemicals for RO unit cleaning chemicals
– Reject stream of water by the RO unit
– Wastewater from the cleaning of RO unit
– Backwash water from iron removal column
Demineralized water system
From process water by ion-exchange process
– Pressure filter
– Activated carbon column
– Cation-exchange resin beds
– Degassifer
– Anion-exchange resin beds
– Mixed ion-exchange resin beds
– Regeneration chemicals storage and handling systems
– Soft water storage and supply
From reverse osmosis water by ion-exchange process
– Mixed ion-exchange resin beds
– Regeneration chemicals storage and handling systems
– Soft water storage and supply
Raw water from
Rawwater pump at ETP A

Backwash water

Raw water Soft water
(1) WBA
tank Resin bed Regeneration waste*

Rinse wastewater
Regeneration
solution
Backwash water
Rawwater Activated
for backwash SBA
Carbon filter Backwash water Caustic Resin bed Regeneration waste
solution

Water for Soft water Rinse wastewater
regeneration Backwash water (1)
DI water Backwash water
SAC Regeneration Mixed
Resin bed chemcial waste Caustic & HCl Regeneration waste
solutions Resin bed
Rinse
30% HCl wastewater Blower Rinse wastewater

Air & stripped Air
Blower Degassifier DI water
Carbon dioxide tank

Soft water for
Air Regeneration (1)
A DI water
to the boiler
as feed water

Demineralized Water Plant
process water

Pressure Backwash
backwash water
filter water A
backwash Act. carbon
water column Backwash water
SAC regeneration
HCl Resin bed wastewater caustic & Mixed
resin bed Regeneration waste
solution HCl solns
rinse
wastewater Rinse wastewater
air & stripped
Blower Degassifier carbon dioxide Plate heat DI water
exchanger tank steam cond. from
surface condenser
regeneration of turbine generator
air waste
WBA
Resin bed backwash water Return Boiler feed Condensate
cond. tank water tank tank
rinse wastewater
regeneration
solution backwash water
cond. returned
SBA Boiler feed water
caustic Resin bed regeneration waste from mill
solution
rinse wastewater
A

Demineralized Water Plant
Environmental concerns
Water consumption for
– backwashing of the the pressure filter, the activated
carbon column and ion-exchange resin beds
– Preparing the regeneration chemical solutions
– Regenerating the ion-exchange resin beds (chemical
draw, slow rinse and rapid rinse)
Wastewater generation from
– backwashing of pressure filter, activated carbon
column and ion-exchange resin beds
– regeneration of ion-exchange resin beds ( chemical
draw, slow rinsing and rapid rinsing)
– Water loss as spills and leaks
Environmental concerns
• Consumption of regeneration chemicals
• Consumption of
– Ion exchange resin for makeup and for replacing the
spoilt resin
– Activated carbon consumption for replacing the
exhausted carbon
• Power consumption for running the DM water plant
and supplying the DM water
• Generation of discarded spent activated carbon and
spoilt ion-exchange resin
Backwater system
Backwater: wastewater with potential for recycling & reuse
• Process wastewaters
• Foul condensates
• Steam condensates
• Cooling tower blow down water
• Boiler blow down water
• Seepages and leakages of water
• Wastewaters from water treatment plants
• Reject water
• Backwash waters
• Ion-exchange rinse waters
• Underflow sludges
May need pretreatment prior to supply for reuse
Circulating Cooling Water System
Cooling water is used for cooling in heat exchangers at
multitude of places in the industry
– Cooling water usually circulates between heat exchangers
and cooling towers
– Use can be consumptive use (not encouraged)
Circulating cooling water system usually includes
– Cooling tower (includes sump)
– Pumps and piping for circulation between cooling towers
and heat exchangers
– Heat exchangers
Circulating Cooling Water System
Circulating cooling water system has provision for
• Blow down circulating cooling water, cooling tower blow
down (avoids salt built-up)
• Addition of water for making up losses
– Evaporation losses
– Drift losses
– Blow down losses
– Leaks and spills
– Consumptive use
• Conditioning of circulating cooling water (for controlling
scaling, fouling and corrosion problems)
Circulating cooling water
Process Evaporation
Cooling losses
system
Consumptive use of Drift losses
cooling water
distributor
Process
Cooling
system Conditioning
Cooling
chemicals tower
Process sump
Pump(s)
Cooling
system

Process Cooling tower
Makeup water Blowdown
Cooling
system
Leaks from circulating water

Cooling tower and circulating cooling water system
Environmental concerns
Electrical energy for
– Pumps that circulate cooling water
– Fans that create upward draft of air and hasten the cooling
process
Chemicals for conditioning circulating cooling water
– antifouling agents like pesticides, copper sulfate (controls
algal growth) toxic compounds (chromium like metals based),
etc.
– Alkali for controlling pH (low pH cause for corrosion)
Water consumption to make up cooling tower blow down,
evaporation, drift and other losses
Cooling tower blow down water
– Has high TDS, may also have some TSS and conditioning
chemicals added
– May not need any treatment – can be mixed with treated
effluents for regulating TDS and disposed off
Circulating Chilled Water System
Two types of refrigeration systems for producing chilled
water
1. Vapour Compression Systems (VCS)
– Conventionally ammonia as refrigerant
– CFCs (freons) as refrigerants
restrictions on use of ozone depleting substances
HCFCs and HFCs are used in place
1. Vapour Absorption Systems (VAS)
– Lithium bromide – water systems
– Can use waste heat
Ammonia based chilled water system
Includes
– Ice bank tank where water is chilled
– Ammonia compressor for compressing ammonia
vapours
– Ammonia condenser
– Ammonia reservoir
– Economizer
– Circulating lubricating oil system with provision for
cooling oil
– Pump and piping and fixtures for the circulation of
chilled water
soft water
for make-up

Water
meter

returned chilled
pump water to
chilled water Ice bank tanks
(4 numbers) points of use
ammonia liquid
ammonia vapours ammonia
for make-up
ammonia vapours
lub. oil
Lub. Oil Screw rotary
stainer tube side Economizer
Compressors (3)

compressed NH3 controlled
plus lub oil flow of NH3
cooling Lub. Oil cooling
water cooler water Lubricating oil Liquid ammonia
separator receiving tank
cooling
Lub. Oil Lub. Oil water
reservoir filter lub. oil
Ammonia liquid
compressed NH3 condenser ammonia
lub. oil
for make-up
cooling
water
Environmental concerns
• Lubricating oil for making up losses from leaks and spills,
and from maintenance and for replacing aged oil
• Ammonia to make up losses (leaks, maintenance losses)
• Accident risks (toxic releases and fugitive emissions)
related to storage and handling
• Electrical energy to run ammonia compressors, and chilled
water pumps (and lubricating oil pumps)
• Water to make up chilled water losses (leaks and spills and
consumptive use)
• Circulating cooling water to cool circulating lubricating oil
and the compressed ammonia
• Wasted lubricating oil
• Lubricating oil contaminated wastes (textile, used filters, oil
spills cleanings, etc.)
• Fugitive emission of ammonia
CFC based chilled water system

Includes
– Chilling chamber
– Vapour compressor
– Refrigerant condenser
– Refrigerant storage and supply (through expansion
valve)
– Pumps and piping and other fixtures to circulate the
chilled water
circulating
refrigerant (frion-22) cooling water
from cooling tower

Expansion Condenser
valve
cooling water
to cooling tower

Evaporator Compressor

circulating circulating
chilled water chilled water

CFC based vapour compression chilled water plant
Environmental concerns
• Electrical energy to run compressors and to circulating
chilled water
• CFCs (ozone depleting substance) to make up losses
through leaks and during maintenance activities
• Lubricating oil to make up losses and replacements of
aged oil
• Water to make up losses from leaks and consumptive uses
• Circulating cooling water for cooling the compressed
refrigerant
• Fugitive emissions and releases of CFC into atmosphere
• Noise problems of compressors
• Discarded lubricating oil and oil contaminated wastes
Vapour absorption chiller system

Includes
• Chilling chamber
• Vapour absorption chamber
• Lithium bromide dehydrator
• Lythium bromide cooler
• Lithium bromide circulation system
• Refrigerant condenser
• Refrigerant storage and circulation system
• Pumps and piping and other fixtures for circulating the
chilled water
process water

lithium
bromide

water vapour
shell Mixing Vapour
side tank Absorption
chamber

lithium bromide
condensed water Flashed Dehydrated
Vapour Bromide
condenser cooler
MP steam

cooling water
Lithium
Bromide
dehydrator

cooling water
Chilled
Water tank Condensate
receiving tank

Chilled water
steam condensate
Environmental concerns

• Consumption of lithium bromide for making up losses
• Circulating cooling water for
– Condensing the refrigerant vapours
– Cooling the dehydrated lithium bromide
• Consumption of electrical energy for
– Circulating the lithium bromide and the refrigerant
– Pumping and circulating the chilled water
• Energy consumption to dehydrate the lithium bromide
– medium pressure steam (generates steam
condensate)
– exhaust gases with waste heat (avoid due point temp.)
Hot water systems
• Use of condensate or foul condensate as hot water
• Generation of hot water through
– Direct steam injection
– Heating in heat exchanger – either by waste heat or steam
– Hot water boiler
Use can be consumptive use or use in heat exchanger
– Hot water can get contaminated with the fluid being heated in the
heat exchanger
– Steam condensate may be generated
– Water hammering can create problems and force wasteful use of
water
Thermic fluid system
Circulating thermic fluid is used as heating specially in the
radiator heater for producing dry hot air for drying
– Pumps and piping for circulating the thermic fluid
– Thermic fluid lines, tanks etc., are insulated
Heating of the return thermic fluid is done in a boiler
(thermopack boiler)
– Fuel combustion in the boiler
– Flue gases causing air pollution and resulting in heat
loss
Circulating cooling water may be needed for gland cooling
and sealing of pump glands
Diesel oil may be needed for cleaning the clogged filters and
used filters and oil contaminated fabric may be generated
as waste
Process flow diagram on next slide
Purchased Incoming
Furnace oil Thermic fluid

(1)
Furnace oil Header for
storage incoming

Waste oil
recycle tank Diesel for cleaning

Furnace oil Expansion Makeup Makeup fluid
Waste generated ??
from cleaning (1) filter tank tank

Diesel &
comp. air Diesel for cleaning

Furnace oil Bucket filter
day tank Waste generated
from cleaning
Cooling water
Diesel for cleaning From cooling tower

Waste generated Furnace oil Circulation
from cleaning (1) filter pump Combustion gases
from boiler-1
Cooling water
to cooling tower
Electrical energy Furnace oil Combustion
Pre heater Boiler gases Stack To atmosphere

Carbon dust
Blower Combustion gases
Header for from boiler-3
outgoing

Combustion
air
Outgoing
Thermic fluid
Steam system
Steam system includes
– Steam generating boilers
– Steam distribution system
– Condensate collection and return system
– Steam turbine (if cogeneration facility exists)
Steam boilers is usually associated with
– DM water unit and boiler feed water (conditioning & feeding)
– Fuel storage, handling (and feeding)
– Combustion air supply
– Flue gas handling (treatment) and disposal
– Bottom ash (and bed material) handling and disposal
– Boiler blow down handling and disposal
– Steam conditioning and supply
1. Boilers
2. Deaerators/Boiler
Feed System
3. Blowdown
Separator/Valves
4. Blowdown Heat
Recovery
5. Chemical Feed
System
6. Water Softeners
7. Economizer
8. Stacks and
Breeching
9. Chimney
Automation/Draft
Controls
10. Combustion Air
Systems
11. Semi
Instantaneous
Water Heater
12. Multi System Boiler
Controls
13. Oxygen Trim
Systems
14. Sample Cooler
15. Dealkalizer
16. Water
Filter/Reverse
Osmosis System
17. The Boiler Book
Steam boilers
Fuels and their feeding
• Fuels
• Coal, rice husk, pet coke, wood, bagasse, agricultural
wastes and residues, etc.
• Furnace oil, LDO, Concentrated black liquor, etc.
• Biogas, natural gas, propane, etc.
• Fuel storage
– Storage loss (microbial degradation loss, loss in storm water
and wind), moisture, fire hazards, etc.
• Furnace oil is stored at elevated temperature (electrically)
• Processing and conditioning of fuels
– Screening (mechanical, magnetic and manual), pulverizing,
pre-heating (oils for better flow properties & atomizing), etc.
– Rejects (like dust, metallic pieces, stones, etc.) generation,
dust suspension in air, risk of fire, noise problems, etc.
• Fuel feeding
– Pneumatic, mechanical and manual
Combustion of fuels
Combustion technologies
• Conventional technology
– Fuel is burnt over a bed or grate
– Inefficient technology - no proper contact between fuel and
air - relatively inefficient combustion
– Very high temperature combustion - high NOx generation
– Only part of the furnace space is utilized
• Fluidized bed technology
– Fuel is burnt in a fluidized bed (of lime stone, sand, etc.)
– Uniform and relatively low temperature (around 1000°C) all
through the furnace – relatively less NOx formation
– Better contact between fuel and combustion air
– Majority of the ash goes along with exhaust gases as flyash
– Hot fluidized bed allows combustion of very low grade fuels
Combustion of fuels
Combustion
• Demands oxygen or combustion air
• Generates
• Heat (used for steam generation from feed water)
• Flue gases
• Ash (bottom ash and fly ash)
• Proximate and ultimate analysis of fuels help in the
• Estimation of heat generated
• Stoichiometric calculation of combustion air requirements
• Estimation of flue gas composition and quantities

Combustion occurs external to the boiler in a furnace
Combustion of fuels
Fuel may be solid, liquid or gas or a combination of two
or more of these
• Burners are used for combusting liquid & gaseous fuels
• Mixing of air and fuel in appropriate proportion and feeding
to the boiler furnace
• Liquid fuels are atomized into very small drop lets
• Solid fuels are often added with lime like additives
In case of use of gas turbines combustion is carried out
under pressurized conditions
Combustion of fuels
Depending on how hot flue gases and boiler feed water
are handled boilers are categorized into
• Fire tube boilers – hot flue gases are made to flow in
tubes submerged in water
– Smaller boilers producing low pressure saturated steam
• Water tube boilers – water is made to flow through tubes
that run in the passage of hot flue gases
– Larger boilers generating superheated high pressure steam
Fire tube boiler
Steam boilers
Combustion air
• Entry of combustion air is powered by FD fans (and
primary air fans)
– Small fire tube boilers often depend on natural draught
• Usually more than the stoichiometrically required
quantities are supplied
• May be totally or partially preheated (in air pre-heater)
prior to use
• May be divided into primary air and secondary air streams
– Primary air is further powered and used for pneumatic
feeding of fuel and for spreading of the fed fuel
– Secondary air is injected into furnace (through air box for
bed fluidization in case of fluidized bed technology)
• In some cases injected as primary, secondary and tertiary
air at three different levels into the furnace
Steam boilers
Flue gases
Basis for composition and quantities of flue gases
generated
• Proximate and ultimate analysis of the fuels
• Excess air used in the combustion process
• Combustion conditions
Heat generated from the fuel combustion
• Radiant heat of the furnace used for heating water in the
water walls and in the screen tubes
• Sensible heat flue gases – used for
– Steam superheating in the super heater section
– Water heating in the boiler tube bank, in the economizer
– Air pre-heating in the air pre-heater
Steam boilers
Flue gases
Flue gases from economizer/pre-heater are treated for
pollutant removal and discharged through a stack
– APCDs are used for controlling particulate emissions
(and even gaseous emissions)
• Cyclone separators and multiclones are usually used
• Electrostatic precipitators
ID fan is used for
• Pulling flue gases through super heater, boiler tube bank,
economizer, pre-heater, and APCDs
• Pushing flue gases through stack into atmosphere
Steam boilers
Bed material
• Needed in case of fluidized bed technology
• Fraction of bed material is intermittently withdrawn sieved
and loaded back
– Both oversize and undersize screenings are discarded as
waste
– Fresh bed material is added for makeup
Bottom ash and fly ash
• Ash generated at the furnace is bottom ash
– Generation is more in case of conventional technology
• Fly ash is generated at the APCDs
– Also generated at the boiler tube bank, economiser, and air
pre-heater
• Ash requires quenched with water and disposal
Steam boilers
Boiler feed water and steam
– Return condensate (after polishing)
– DM water for makeup (soft water in case of low pressure
boilers)
– Foul condensate (after pre-treatment) from the core
processes
• Boiler feed water is deaerated (by steam stripping) and
chemically conditioned prior to use
– Conditioning chemicals may also be directly dosed into the
steam drum
– Conditioning is to avoid oxidative & acidic corrosion, and
scaling problems by removing DO, regulating pH, maintaining
precipitates in suspension
– Tri-sodium phosphate, and other proprietary chemicals
• With high pressure pumps boiler feed water is pressurized
to the desired level prior to feeding
Steam boilers
Boiler feed water and steam
• Fed water is first heated in economizer and then allowed
to flow into steam drum
• Water from steam drum is circulated through water walls,
boiler tube banks and screen tubes for super heating
• Saturated dry steam is separated at steam drum and
supplied to plant for heating (after temp. & pres.
adjustment)
– In case of cogeneration, the saturated dry steam is super
heated in super-heaters and sent to steam turbines (after
temp. & pres. adjustment) for power generation
– From turbine, steam may extracted as MP and/or LP steam
and supplied to the plant
– Exhaust steam of the turbine is condensed and returned to
the boiler for reuse as boiler feed water
Steam boilers
Boiler feed water and steam
• For regulating TDS and TSS, boiler blow-down from steam
drum, mud drum and headers is practiced
• Superheated high pressure steam is used for soot blowing
in the boiler
• Low pressure steam is consumed in the deaeration of the
boiler feed water
• Steam may often be used for preheating the fuel and even
air preheating
• Adjustment of pressure and temperature of the generated
steam may involve injecting boiler feed water
Components of a steam boiler
Furnace
• Fuel is combusted here to generate radiant heat and hot
flue gases
• Two types: conventional or fluidized bed
• Fluidized bed has air box, air nozzles for fluidization and
fluidized bed material
• Fuel and combustion air are fed to the furnace and hot
flue gases are allowed to flow into super heater
• Has water walls and screen tubes for radiant heat
recovery
• Has provision for feeding bed material and for removing
bed material and bottom ash
• Has shoot blowers for removing the accumulated dust
over heat exchange surfaces
Components of a steam boiler
Fuel system
– Fuel may be screened, pulverized and pre-heated prior to
supply
– Pneumatic, mechanical or manual feeding of fuel
Combustion Air Systems
– Natural draft or FD fan (even primary air fan) are used
– Provisions may be there for air pre-heating
– May be fed as primary, secondary and tertiary air
Deaerator/Boiler Feed System
– Provisions for steam stripping and storing at elevated
temperature (~105°C)
– High pressure pumps for supplying feed water to boiler
– Fed water passes through economizer into the steam drum
of boiler
Components of a steam boiler
Super heater
– Saturated steam from the steam drum is transformed
into superheated steam
– Can be single stage or two stage
– Some boilers may not have this section
– Provisions for soot blowing
– Provisions for super heated steam conditioning and
supply
Components of a steam boiler
Boiler tube bank
• Receives hot flue gases from super heater and sends to
economizer
• Has a steam drum and a mud drum (some have only steam
drum) - connected by tube banks
• Natural circulation of water from steam drum to mud drum
and back to steam drum occurs
• Provisions for natural circulation of water through water
walls and screen tubes as well
• Provisions for super heated water flashing and separation of
dry saturated steam from steam drum
• Provisions for continuous and/or intermittent boiler blow
down from steam drum, mud drum and header
– A blow down tank is also provided
• Provisions for water samples cooling and collection
• Hopper for collecting the ash
• Provisions for soot blowing
Components of a steam boiler
Economizer
– Flue gases from boiler tube bank preheat boiler feed water
prior to loading into steam drum
– Hopper for collecting the ash
Air pre-heater
– Flue gases from economizer pre-heat combustion air prior to
feeding to furnace
– Hopper for collecting the ash
Air pollution control systems
– Could have two systems (cyclone or multiclone and fabric
filter bag house or electrostatic precipitator in series)
– Have hoppers for collecting the ash
Components of a steam boiler
ID fan
– To power sucking of flue gases from the furnace through
super heater, boiler tube bank, economizer, air pre-heater
and APCDs and pushing through stack into the atmosphere
– Smaller boilers and boilers depending on natural draft may
not have ID fan
Stacks
– Flue gases are pushed into the stack by ID fan through a
connecting duct
– Height and diameter of stack are important
– Have sampling port and sampling platform
– Have bottom pit (for collecting settled dust and for draining
out rain water) and manhole
Open husk larger size treated flue gases
storage yard Vibratory feeder into atmosphere
foreign materials through stack

Yard storage losses
rice husk
received in Steam
tractors & trucks Husk bunker at 15.5 kg/cm2 ID fan
pressure

feeding air boiler bed
material vent

Air External boiler flue gases
box furnace Fire tube boiler multiclone

sec. air
Underground
flyash discarded blowdown tank
bed material
Flyash Boiler feed Rotary valve
FD fan quenching water pumps (electrical motor
Operated)
blowdown water
flyash to drain
process water vent
for quenching
air * flyash
Flyash sulfite and
* flyash temporary store Feed water tank phosphate
chemiclas

flyash for disposal soft water
within the plant premises
water for
coal wetting
coal from
coal yard
oversize coal

Storage Crusher/ Magnetic Coal
Screen
bin pulverizer separator feeder

rejects

flue gases
PA fan to chimney
combustion air
sec. air
ID fan
Steam
drum
Super Air
Furnace Economizer ESP
heater Pre-heater
Mud
drum
bed material
bed material boiler FD fan
& bottom ash feed water
superheated
steam
flyash flyash flyash flyash flyash
combustion air
Environmental concerns
Fuel consumption
Fire hazards associated with storage and handling of fuels
Storage losses of fuels
Moisture acquiring by fuel during storage
Storm water pollution in the fuel storage and handling areas
Suspension of fuel, during handling including pulverization
and by wind, in the local air
Rejects generated at the screening
Noise pollution problems associated with the handling of fuels
(specially screening and pulverizing)
Energy consumption in fuel pre-heating (electrical energy or
steam)
Steam condensate generation at fuel pre-heating if steam is
used
Electrical energy for fuel processing, conditioning and feeding
Environmental concerns

Power consumption by FD fan and primary air fan in supplying
combustion air
Heat losses from the furnace and boiler surfaces
Flues gases generation from fuel combustion
Ash generation from fuel combustion
Heat loss in the form of hot flue gases
Heat losses in the form of hot fly ash and bottom ash
Energy loss from incomplete combustion in flue gases and in fly
ash and bottom ash
NOx generation in the flue gases
Utilities and services: Electrical power
Utilities - Electrical power
• Sources of power
– Grid power
– Captive power from DG sets
– Captive power from cogeneration units
• Important constituents of a power system
– Power meters (measuring kVA, kWh and maximum demand
indicator (in 30 min cycle)
– LT and/or HT panels (for regulating downstream power
supply) with necessary breakers and meters
– Power cables and power distribution lines
– Capacitor banks (for power factor correction)
– Transformers and rectifiers for AC/DC conversions and for
voltage step-up/step-down
• Electrical power supply could be to
– Drives
– Heating units
– Electrolytic processes
– Lighting facilities
DG sets
• Capacity is expressed in terms of kVA
• Run on high speed diesel (HSD) as fuel and run during peak
load hours
• Includes two parts: diesel engine (prime mover) and
alternator/generator
• Usually multi-cylinder two stroke engines
• Has a common crank case filled with engine oil
• Engine oil is cooled by circulating coolant oil – circulating
coolant oil by circulating cooling water
• Turbo-charger, run on exhaust gases, is used for compressing
and heating (as hot combustion air (350-400°C)
• HSD retained in a day tank is injected into the hot compressed
air cylinders after filtering for spontaneous ignition
• Shaft of the diesel engine is coupled with the alternator for
generation of AC electric power
• Bearings of the shaft are cooled by circulating cooling water in
jacket coolers
DG sets
• Both grease and oil are used for lubrication purpose
• Lubrication oil is replaced with fresh oil after every 250 hours of
running (associated with oil spillages)
• Coolant oil is prepared in water and circulating coolant oil is
replaced after every 750 hours of running
• Exhaust gases are disposed off into atmosphere through stack
• During startup DG set (turbo-charger) is run on batteries and
then gradually shifted to internal power system
• Batteries require frequent maintenance (adding DM water for
maintaining acid strnegth)
Other environmental Concerns
• Consumption of engine oil, coolant oil, and other lubricants and
generation of Discarded engine oil, coolant oil and filters
• Use of rechargeable batteries (for powering turbo-charger during
startup) and generation of Discarded batteries
• Noise pollution problems
Air for Exhaust
combustion gases

Turbo charger
HSD Air for Exhaust
combustion gases

HSD day Oil Internal Generator/
tank pump Combustion alternator
chambers
Lube oil
Lube oil Lube oil
Engine oil
reservoir

Coolant oil Coolant oil

Coolant
Oil cooler

Cooling water Cooling water
Cooling
Makeup water tower Evap. & drift
water loss
Cooling tower
blowdown

DG set
Turbine Generator
Gas turbines and steam turbines are used
Gas turbines - mostly limited to thermal
power plants
Steam turbines – mostly used as part of
cogeneration in industry
In cogeneration units usually steam turbines
are used and steam of desired pressure is
extracted from the turbine
MP steam cooling water

boiler hydragine
Steam jet NCG Inter feed water pH booster
air ejector cooler vent SSB

Vent of
NCG cooling cond.
water Deaerator Economizer
Steam jet
After air ejector NCG
cooler
condensate LP steam

cond. MP steam
regeneration CBD
wastewater Cooling Condensor Pri. super Steam
tower heater drum

Softwater exhaust Desuper Water
plant SSB heater SSB walls
blowdown steam
water
turbine Sec. super Mud
process SSB heater drum SSB
water IBD

regeneration DM – demineralized water
steam PRDS LP – low pressure
chemicals to turbine MP – medium pressure
PRDS – pressure reducign devices
extracted SSB – steam for soot blowing
steam LP steam PC – condensate received from process
TC – condensate from turbine condensor
IBD – intermittent blowdown
electrical MP steam CBD – continuous blowdown
power CW – cooling water
NCG – non-condensible gases
overflow
oil
Overhead
cooling cooling lube oil
water water tank

Oil 25µ oil
cooler filter

Bearings
AOP
cooling
Lube oil
MOP
tank Gear box
cooling
EOP
10µ oil
Alt. Brgs. filter
cooling

LP servo LP Oil
CPC filter

AOP – auxiliary oil pulp
MOP – main oil pump MP servo
EOP – emergency oil pump
CPC – current to pressure convertor Trip
LP – low pressure device
MP – meadium pressure ESV
ESV -

Lubricating and coolant oil system of a turbine system
cooling water cooling water
cooling
cooling Intercooler water
fresh air
water
Stage -2 compressor Stage -1 Filter
compressn compressn
cooling cooling
water water
lube oil
cooling water waste oil

Precooler Moisture
separator

cooling water
cooling water

Electric Drier Aftercooler Moisture Direr
heater Tower -1 separator Tower -2

cooling water condensate

cooling Afterfilter
cooling
water water

Aftercooler compressn Filter Receiver
tank
lube oil compressor
fresh air compressed dry air
waste oil

Instrumental air system