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DIESEL ENGINES

The diesel engine


requires compression
ratios of 16:1 and higher.
Incoming air is
compressed until its
temperature reaches
about 1,000F (540C).
This is called heat of
compression.
As the piston reaches the
top of its compression
stroke, fuel is injected
into the cylinder, where it
is ignited by the hot air

Diesel combustion occurs


when fuel is injected into the
hot, highly compressed air in
the cylinder.

Diesel Injection System

INDIRECT INJECTION
In an indirect injection
(abbreviated IDI) diesel
engine, fuel is injected
into a small prechamber,
which is connected to the
cylinder by a narrow
opening.
The initial combustion
takes place in this
prechamber.
This has the effect of
slowing the rate of
combustion, which tends
to reduce noise

DIRECT INJECTION
A direct injection
diesel engine
injects the fuel
directly into the
combustion
chamber.
Many designs do
not use a glow plug

GLOW PLUGS
Glow plugs are always used in diesel engines
equipped with a precombustion chamber and
may be used in direct injection diesel engines to
aid starting.
A glow plug is a heating element that uses 12
volts from the battery and aids in the starting of
a cold engine.
As the temperature of the glow plug increases,
the resistance of the heating element inside
increases, thereby reducing the current in
amperes needed by the glow plugs.

Merits of Electronic controlled


diesel injection system
Quantity of fuel injection
Injection timing
Rate of injection during various
stage
Injection pressure
Speed of nozzle opening

Types of Electronic controlled


diesel injection system
Unit Injector System (UIS)

Rotary Distributor System (RDS)


Common Rail Injection System (CRS)

Unit Injection System

FUEL TANK AND LIFT PUMP


A fuel tank used on a vehicle equipped with
a diesel engine differs from the one used
with a gasoline engine in several ways,
including:
A larger filler neck for diesel fuel.
No evaporative emission control devices
or charcoal (carbon) canister.
The diesel fuel is drawn from the fuel tank
by a lift pump and delivers the fuel to the
injection pump.
Between the fuel tank and the lift pump is a
water-fuel separator.
Water is heavier than diesel fuel and
sinks to the bottom of the separator.

Four Stages of Combustion in CI Engines

Start of
injection

-20

End of
injecction

-10

TC

10

20

30

Combustion in CI Engine

The combustion process proceeds by the following stages:


Ignition delay (ab) - fuel is injected directly into the cylinder towards
the end of the compression stroke.
The liquid fuel atomizes into small drops and penetrates into the
combustion chamber. The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the hightemperature high-pressure air.
Premixed combustion phase (bc) combustion of the fuel which has
mixed with the air to within the flammability limits (air at hightemperature and high-pressure) during the ignition delay period
occurs rapidly in a few crank angles.
Mixing controlled combustion phase (cd) after premixed gas
consumed, the burning rate is controlled by the rate at which mixture
becomes available for burning.
The burning rate is controlled primarily by the fuel-air mixing
process.

Common Rail Diesel Injection System

The Common Rail Diesel Injection System delivers a more controlled quantity
of atomised fuel, which leads to better fuel economy; a reduction in exhaust
emissions; and a significant decrease in engine noise during operation.

Common rail diesel injection system


In the Common Rail system, an accumulator, or
rail, is used to create a common reservoir of fuel
under a consistent controlled pressure that is
separate from the fuel injection points.
A high-pressure pump increases the fuel pressure
in the accumulator up to 1,600 bar .
The pressure is set by the engine control unit and
is independent of the engine speed and quantity
of fuel being injected into any of the cylinders.
The fuel is then transferred through rigid pipes to
the fuel injectors, which inject the correct amount
of fuel into the combustion chambers.

Injectors for CRDI


The injectors used in Common Rail systems are
triggered externally by an Electronic Diesel Control,
or EDC unit.
EDC controls all the engine injection parameters
including the pressure in the fuel rail and the timing
and duration of injection.
Diesel fuel injectors used in Common Rail injection
systems operate differently to conventional fuel
injectors used in the jerk pump system.
Some common rail injectors are controlled by a
magnetic solenoid on the injector.
Hydraulic force from the pressure in the system is
used to open and close the injector, but the
available pressure is controlled by the solenoid