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TOTAL QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
CONTINUOUS PROCESS
IMPROVEMENT

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Continuous Process
Improvement
Improvement is made by:

• Viewing all work as a process.
• Making all processes effective.
• Anticipating changing customer needs.
• Controlling in-process performance using measures such as
scrap reduction, cycle time, control charts, and so forth.
• Maintaining constructive dissatisfaction with the present level
of performance.
• Eliminating waste and rework wherever it occurs.
• Investigating activities that do not add value to the product or
service.
• Eliminating nonconformities in all phases of everyone’s work.
• Using benchmarking to improve competitive advantage.
• Innovating to achieve breakthroughs.
• Incorporating lessons learned into future activities.
• Using technical tools such as statistical process control (SPC),
experimental design, benchmarking, quality function
deployment (QFD), and so forth.

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FIVE BASIC WAYS TO IMPROVE

• Reduce resources
• Reduce errors
• Meet or exceed expectations of
customer
• Make the process safer
• Make the process satisfactory to the
person doing it

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INPUT / OUTPUT PROCESS MODEL

Feedback

Input Process Output
Materials People Product
Money Method Information Outcomes
Information Materials Service.
Data etc. Procedures

Conditions
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APPROACHES TOWARDS
CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENTS
• Juran’s Trilogy
• Shewhart’s Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle
• Kaizen
• Reengineering
• SixSigma

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JURAN’S TRILOGY
Quality Planning.
Development Transferring
Determination Needs of Development
Of Product Plans to
of External External Of The
Or Services Operations.
Customers Customers Process
Features

Quality Control.
Measurement Comparison Act on the
Determination Of actual with
Set Goals Of Actual differences.
Of Items Goals
Performance

Quality Improvement.
 Allocate Resources, People to Pursue Quality
 Training
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Repair

Refinement

Renovation

Reinvention
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IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
 Repair:

 “Anything broken must be fixed so that it
functions as designed.”
 Strategies divided into two levels:

1. Temporary or Short- term measure

2. Permanent measure
 Refinement:
 “Activities that continually improve a
process that is not broken.”
 Refinement improves efficiency and Slide 8 of 29
IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
 Renovation:

 “Strategy results in major or breakthrough
improvement.”
 Innovation & technological advancement are
key factors in this approach.
 Reinvention (Re-Engineering):
 “Reinvention begins by imagining that the
previous condition does not exist; A clean
sheet of paper”

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TYPES OF PROBLEMS
 Compliance

 Unstructured

 Efficiency

 Process Design

 Product Design

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PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
1. Identity the
opportunities

7. Plan for 2. Analyze the
The Future act plan Process

6. Standardize 3. Develop the
the solution optimal Solution
Stud do
y

5. Study Results 4. Implement

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Problem Solving Method
• Phase 1: Identify the Opportunity
• Identify the problem
• Form the team
• Define the scope
– Charter for the team:
• Authority
• Objective and scope
• Direction and Control
• General (Methods, Resources.)
• Phase 2: Analyze the Current Process
• Development of process diagram
• Target Performance Measure
• Identify the root causes
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Problem Solving Method
• Phase 3: Develop the Optimal Solution
• Establishing Potential & Feasible Solution
• Select of one possible Solution
• Phase 4: Implement Changes
• Implementation Plan & Obtaining approval
• Contents of implementation plan report:
– Why will it be written?
– How will it be done?
– When will it be done?
– Who will do it?
– Where will it be done?
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PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

Phase 5: Study the Results

Phase 6: Standardize the Solution

Phase 7: Plan for the Future
• TQM addresses the quality of
management as well the
management of quality.
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KaiZen
• “Kai”  Change; “Zen”  Better

• Kaizen  Make it Better (Improvement)

• “A selection of better means or a
change of current method for
achieving an objective.”

• An accumulation of small changes

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DIFFERENT STYLES OF
CHANGES
• Small Change (KaiZen):
– By individual effort, a better way of proceeding a job
is considered. (idea generation)
• Medium Change (Small Group Activities)
– By group effort, a better way is proposed by following
predetermined steps (or rule)
• Big Change (Innovation):
– By investments in new technology or equipment,
dramatic alterations are achieved.

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KaiZen : 5S
• 5S movement is a determination to
organize work place, to keep it neat, to
clean, to maintain the discipline to do a
good job.

• Japanese concept for house keeping
– Sort (Seiri)
– Straighten (Seiton)
– Shine (Seiso)
– Standardize (Seiketsu)
– Sustain (Shitsuke)

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KaiZen : 5S
• Sort (Seiri)
– the first S focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the
workplace.
– Tags are placed on all unnecessary item declaring as waste.
• Straighten (Seiton)
– Effective & efficient storage methods
– Arrange needed items so they are easy to find, use and return, to
streamline production and eliminate time searching for them.
• Shine (Seiso)
– Clean and care for equipment and areas, and inspect while doing
so.
• Standardize (Seiketsu)
– Make all work areas similar so procedures are obvious , and
defects stand out.
• Sustain (Shitsuke)
– within the context of 5s sustain means making a habit of properly
maintaining correct procedures
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Benefits
• Improves on-time delivery
• Improves quality/reduced defects
• Increases productivity
• Reduces lead times
• Reduces waste in materials, space and time
• Reduces inventory and storage costs
• Reduces equipment downtime
• Contributes positively towards safety
• Promotes standardization
• Promotes work satisfaction
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10 HINTS FOR DOING SUCCESSFUL
KAIZEN
1. No Excuses: Don’t make excuses… Don’t accept
excuses…Explanations are often still excuses (if you
have time to makeup excuses, you have time to think of
improvement ideas).
2. Don’t be a concrete head: Throughout traditional
concepts… Think how a new method can work, not how
it won’t.
3. Do Kaizen by getting your hands dirty on the shop floor
4. Quick & Crude is better than slow and elegant: Don’t
seek perfection… 50% improvement rate is as long as it
is done on the spot.
5. Produce Actual Improvement
6. Implement Kaizen Newspaper items as committed: Don’t
Put of kaizen until tomorrow.
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10 Hints for doing successful
KaiZen
7. Do Kaizen by adopting ideas of workers: Put yourself in the
worker’s position … The idea of 10 people are better than
the knowledge of one.
8. Do Kaizen without spending lots of money: Many small
improvements add up to big results … Implement quickly
with less risk.
9. Don’t overlook even the smallest waste (Muda): Over
production, delay, transportation, processing, inventory, etc.
10. Document results on target progress report: Document and
report results at regular report outs. Fill in the condition
even if there has been no change.

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QUESTION
S
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End of Chapter 5

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