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Rotor-Earth-Fault

Protection
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Generator Protection
Rotor-Earth-Fault Protection

Presenter: Dr. Hans-Joachim Herrmann


PTD PA13
Phone +49 911 433 8266
E-Mail: HansJoachim.Herrmann@siemens.com
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Requirement for Rotor Earth Fault


Protection
+

Rotor

Excitation
system

Earth fault in the rotor


Stator

RE

CE

in case of an earth fault, only small currents flow due to the galvanical isolation

Problem:
Double earth faults and interturn faults as a consequence of an earth fault cause:
magnetical unbalance (unbalanced forces; violent vibration)
high currents at the fault location

Destruction of the Rotor (Generator)


Task: Detection an earth fault already when it starts to build up

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Protection Principle
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+
Excitation
system

Coupling
Unit

Measuring

Voltage
Source

Earthing brush

Principles:
- Incoupling of an AC voltage (50 Hz or 60 Hz)
- Measuring of the earth fault current
- Measuring of the earth fault resistance

Higher
Sensitivity

- Incoupling of low frequency square wave voltage

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Earth Current Criterion


Principle (50 Hz/60Hz - Voltage Injection)

Progress. Its that


simple.

Connection
on the earthing
brush

L1 L2 L3

>40V

IE,Distr.

IE,Fault

105 4F

IE

Pick-up
limit:
IE,Fault > IE,Dist...

If disturbance influence from the excitation is to large

0,75H
Coordinated
resonant circuit to fN

Protection

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Earth Current Measurement


Connection

Progress. Its that


simple.

Connection on the
phase to phase
voltage

AC Voltage
Source
appr. 42V or
65V

Err.
-

100 V - 125 V AC

105

7UM6

4A1

1A3
1A1
2B1

4B1

1B3
1B1

3PP1336

Also IEE2
at 7UM62
is
possible

J7
J8

IEE1

105

External resistors
at excitation voltages
> 150 V (circulating current >0,2A)

Documentation for Coupling Device in the Internet


www.siprotec.com
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Gain Characteristic of the R, C, L-Circuit


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Z( 50 ) 169.65

Z( 60 ) 69.531

Filterverhalten Bandpa

2000

Im p ed an z in O h m

1500
Z( f )

1000

500

50

100

150

200

250

300

f
Frequenz in Hz

I
I

U
ZCoupling R f
45 V
27 mA
170 1,5 k

Imax approx. 300 mA

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Earth Current Criterion


Protection Settings

Progress. Its that


simple.

Protection with two stages:


I
I

Measuring circuit supervision

U
ZCoupling R f

ZCouplingl(50Hz) = 400

45 V
23mA
400 1,5 k

ZCouplingl(60Hz) = 335

Imax ca. 100 mA


(voltage source decreases a little bit )

Note: Coupling impedance only with R and C


Finally setting during commissioning
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Earth Current Criterion


Logic

Progress. Its that


simple.

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Calculation of the Fault Resistance RE


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(50Hz/60Hz- Voltage Injection)


L1 L2 L3

100V

RV

RE

CE

Digital
protection
(7UM62)
calculation
of RE

CK
L1)

RV

42V

CK

1) Recommended
at static excitation
with inject harmonics
(3rd harm.; 6th harm.)

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Calculation Formula of the Fault


Resistance RE
Model:

X*K

R*V

Zers

XE

RE X E
RE
X E

Z ers R * V
j - X *K 2

2
2

RE X E 2
RE X E

(1)

ZMess

RE

(2) Z Mess Re Z j I m Z

R XE
(3) R, E
RE Z - R * V
2
2
RE X E

(4)

R XE
X , E2
I m Z - X * K
2
RE X E

combining (3) and (4):

- I m Z - X * K R Z - R *
X ,2
RE , R,
V
e
R
Re Z - R * V
2

Note: RV* and XK* are measured during commissioning


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Earth Fault Resistance Calculation


Logic

Progress. Its that


simple.

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Earth Fault Resistance Calculation


Settings

Progress. Its that


simple.

Measured during commissioning


Measuring circuit supervision

Measured current can be influenced by disturba


Correction during primary test,
(in most case the alarm stage is concerned)
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Injection of Square Wave Voltage with Low


Frequency Basic Diagram

Progress. Its that


simple.

Typical frequency:
1 - 3 Hz

7XR6004
RV

Controlling device
(7XT71)

IE
RV
+

UH

Excitation
-

CE

Ucontrol

RE
RM

RE
RV
UH
RM
CE

Fault resistance
Coupling resistor
Auxiliary supply ( 50V)
Measuring shunt resistor
Rotor capacitance

Umeas.

Digital
Protection
(7UM62)

Measuring
transducer

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Injection of Square Wave Voltage


Connection Diagram (7UM62)

Progress. Its that


simple.

Connection on the
phase to phase
voltage

7UM62

120 V

100 V
110 V

9
+

40 k

11
27

27
25

Exc. 7XR6004

Control voltage

17
-

40 k

25

15

Measuring voltage

K13 +
K14

TD1

K15 +

TD2

K16

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Injection of Square Wave Voltage with Low


Frequency
Basic Principle
Equivalent circuit:

UH

RV
2
CE

UH

RE

50V

- 50V

UM

RM
iE

RV
20k
2
RM 375
U H 50V

UM

1,88V

RV CE
2

U M 0

RE
t

UM RM iE
- 1,88V

RE 5k

UM
0,75V

UM ~

1
RE
t

- 0,75V

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Sources of Error and Error Compensation


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Influence of field voltage and earth fault location


b) Jumps in the field voltage

a) Earth fault location

a change in the field voltage takes


to jumps in the dc-voltage shifting

Shifting of measuring voltage


with
a positive or negative dc voltage
UM

UM

Udc
UM1

UM2

Udc1
UM1

UM2
UM3

Udc = dc voltage shifting

U1 = |UM1 - UM2|
U2 = |UM2 - UM3|

Solution:
Calculation of the difference voltage
U = |UM1 - UM2|

Solution:
Block of measuring
at jumps (e.g. U1 = U2)

UM4

Udc2

U3 = |UM3 - UM4|

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Calculation Formulas
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CE RE

RV
2

UH
RM

UM

Voltage divider:

RV
RE RM
UH
2

UM
RM

R
RE H - 1 RM - V
2
UM

Algorithm
UM

Filtering:

U1

1 N
1 N
U 1 u1,i ; U 2 u2,i
N i 1
N i 1
U2

UM : U :

U1 - U 2
2

Continuity supervision:
Validity requirement
UIK UIK 1

1 8
otherwise U Uk
8 k 1

Amplitude-log frequency curve: fA = 800 Hz; N = 64


1

G(f)0.1
0.01
0.001
0

30 60 90 120150180210240270300

f in Hz

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Logic Diagram Rotor Earth Fault


Protection (1-3Hz)

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Rotor Earth Fault Protection (1-3Hz)


Setting Values

Progress. Its that


simple.

Measuring circuit supervision


Advanced parameter
only visible in DIGSI
If the integrated test function is used,
pick-up value of test resistor

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Connection of the Rotor Earth Fault


Protection
EM

RW

RE

(50/60 Hz)

4F

CE

40k

(1 - 3 Hz)

a) rotating diodes
L+

EX-T
UG

RW
L-

b) separate Exciter
(static excitation)

(50/60 Hz)

4F

RE

40k

(1 - 3 Hz)

CE

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Generator with Rotating Excitation


Fault Free Condition (Square Wave Principle)

Progress. Its that


simple.

Chance of charge of
rotor earth capacitance

Disturbances by
the
excitation
generator

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Generator with Rotating


Excitation
Test Condition with a Fault
Resistor
Fault resistor is inverse proportional to the difference
voltage

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Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault


Protections
1- 3 Hz principle

50 Hz principle
RV;40k

CK;4F RK;105

or

7UM61
7UM62
uControl

uMeas.

RV;40k

RE

7UM62

CK;4F RK;105

iREF
100V

42V

nur
iREF

uREF

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Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault


Protections
Measurement with the 50/60 Hz Principle
Measurement 7UM61 or 7UM62
(RV is earthed for an AC voltage)

Measurement:
measured as a fault resistance

Equivalent circuit:

RK * CK *

RE * : RE ll

Case 1:
RE

RV
( 20k)
2

seen from the 7UM6, RV already


is interpreted as a rotor-to-earth
resistance

RV
2
RE
RE *

Case 2:

RV
20k
2

RE 5k
RE * 4k

alarm stage becomes less sensitive


open brushes can not be find out

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Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault


Protections
Measurement with the Square Wave
Measurement 7UM62 (1- 3 Hz)
Principle
(C is earthed for a DC voltage)
K

Equivalent circuit:

Umeas

RV
2
U
2
RM

RE

2CK
(8F)

U ~ RE-1

seen from the 7UM6:


high rotor capacitance

capacitors will not be


completely loaded

alarm stage becomes less sensitive


(approx. 50k)

under no-earth-fault conditions


a fault resistance is already measured

longer measuring time

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