• New Advancements in warfare weaponry include…

Trench Mortars Flamethrowers

Grenades

Trench Mortars act as a high-angle gun with a short barrel that projects bombshells a short distance at a high elevation. This design is specifically intended for Trench warfare, hence the prefix in it’s name.

• The Japanese were the first to use the Trench Mortar in the RussoJapanese War •Germans noticed the effectiveness of the weapon, and began to incorporate it into their own war tactics – however, it was not introduced into World War I until 1915 •Sir Wilfred Stokes was the most notable producer of Trench Mortars. He supplied the Allies with the most effective model of the weapon

The Stokes Model of the Trench Mortar

• Able to launch heavy objects up to 2 kilometers (≈ 1.24 miles) • Can be fired from the safety of a trench • Lighter and easier to carry than other weaponry • Plunges straight down after coasting – easier to aim directly into enemy trench

A mechanical device designed to expel a long stream of fire. They can be mounted on a tank or carried by hand. Oil is forced through a tube then ignited.

German Flamethrower Tactic

• First invented 500 B.C. • Later improved upon by Germans in the early 1900s – notably by Richard Fiedler – called the Flammenwerfer • First use in War was by the Germans in an attack on the Western Front • Was also utilized by the Germans in a surprise attack on the British in Flanders – very successful • Germans would frequently use flamethrowers to destroy the enemies first line of defense, then send in the militia

• Two different designs – Handheld – can project a streak up to 59 feet long – Larger – can expel a stream 80 - 130 feet long • Smaller and Lighter model (Wex) allows self-ignition • Strong short-range offense

Portable Flamethrower

Destruction caused by Flamethrowers

• Very destructive • Dangerous for enemy and operators, sometimes the fuel would explode • Destroyed Landscape • Easy for operators to be shot from long range by rifle fire

Grenades are small objects that are either thrown or projected by another object to cause an explosion on impact or over time.

• First used in Napoleonic Wars • Also used in the Russo-Japanese War which garnered German interest • Germans first used Grenades in the beginning of the war, British incorporated them in the later years • Most famous battle - Pozieres Heights, July 1916 – British and Australians vs. Germans ensued 12 hour battle – Many were killed, some fell due to exhaustion

Pozieres Heights - 1916

Typical Grenade Design

• Two main designs: – Percussion: Detonated on Impact – Timed: A predetermined time amount after thrown • Other countries developed their own variations with different delay times and methods of detonation • Can be either thrown or launched by a rifle

• Can be home made, not necessarily made in a factory • Allows for small areas to be purged of men • Can also be used for defensive purposes – smoke grenade: an explosion of smoke that can be used for an escape.

Standard WWI Grenade Technique

• These weapons are all fairly small and can be easily transported •All weapons are compatible with Trench warfare due to their medium to long range attacks •These weapons can be used in both defence or offense.

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