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Late 18 th – early 19 th century AD

:

Major ideologies
and
cultural trends

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Previously:
Conservat - ISM
Tradition
Monarchy
Landowning aristocracy

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Liberal - ISM
Liberty and equality
Partly achieved by the French Revolution
Citizens who can enjoy political
representation; freedom of speech , the
press , assembly
“Classical” liberalism opposed government
intervention in economic affairs;
= laissez faire
“Modern” liberalism – in today’s USA
(supports government-funded economic
programmes)
Vs. today’s conservatives:
“government is a bad owner/manager”

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Modern economics
Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776)
“invisible hand” of a self-regulating
market
"The rich...divide with the poor the produce
of all their improvements. They are led by
an invisible hand to make nearly the same
distribution of the necessaries of life
which would have been made, had the earth
been divided into equal proportions among
all its inhabitants."

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Modern economics
Today: “trickle-down
economics”
Today’s global crisis:
“invisible hand”
discredited
Is economics a
science at all?
Islamic economics

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
National - ISM
Rise of modern European nation-
states
Growing awareness of one’s ethnicity
Partly artificial, partly a result
of industrialization and workers’
physical mobility
Multi-ethnic monarchies vs.
national aspirations

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Social - ISM
Industrial revolution
Capitalism breaks
down the notion of
community
Workers’ movements;
collective action

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Marx - ISM
Karl Marx: Das Kapital (1867)
Means of production vs. forces of
production
exploitation of workers
alienation of labour
Internal tensions: Feudalism  Capitalism 
Socialism  Communism

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Arts:  ROMANTICISM
Romantic - ISM =
= a reaction to classic - ISM
Inspired by rationalism and Enlightenment,
Classicism copied ancient Greek and Roman models

Muzium Telekom, Jalan Raja
Chulan, Kuala Lumpur
Neo-Classicist Greek style

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Romantic - ISM
Late 18th century (Rousseau) to mid-19th
century
Feeling Lord Byron

Edgar Allan Poe
Freedom (1788-1824)

(1809-1849) Nature
Idealized past
Melancholy
Imagination
Spontaneity

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
"Ah! Sure some stronger impulse vibrates
here,
Which whispers friendship will be doubly
dear
To one, who thus for kindred hearts must
roam,
And seek abroad, the love denied at home."

Lord Byron

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin
Romantic - ISM
Individualism
Emotional intensity
Longing
Duels
Alexander PUSHKIN
Madness
Suicide

HIST 3150 Shehzad Martin