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ATOMIC
ORBITAL &
ELECTRON
CONFIGURATION
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s orbitals p orbitals

d orbitals

s orbitals p orbitals d orbitals
No.
orbs. 1 3 5
No.
e- 2 6 10
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Subshells & Shells
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
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QUANTUM NUMBERS
The shape, size, and energy of each orbital is a
function of 3 quantum numbers:
n (major) ---> shell
l (angular) ---> subshell
ml (magnetic) ---> designates an orbital
within a subshell
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QUANTUM NUMBERS
Symbol Values Description

n (major) 1, 2, 3, ... Orbital size,
energy, and
# of nodes=n-1

l (angular) 0, 1, 2, ... n-1 Orbital shape
or type
(subshell)
ml (magnetic) -l,...0,...+l Orbital orientation
# of orbitals in subshell = 2 l + 1
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Shells
Shells and
and Subshells
Subshells
When n = 1, then l = 0 and ml = 0
Therefore, in n = 1, there is 1 type of
subshell
and that subshell has a single orbital
(ml=0 has a single value ---> 1 orbital)

This subshell is labeled s (“ess”)
Each shell has 1 orbital labeled s, and
it is SPHERICAL in shape.
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ss Orbitals
Orbitals

All s orbitals are
spherical in
shape.
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1s Orbital
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2s Orbital
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3s Orbital
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p Orbitals Typical p orbital

When
Whennn==2, 2,then
thenll==00and
andll==11
Therefore,
Therefore,when
whennn==22there
thereare
are22
types
typesof
oforbitals
orbitals— —22subshells
subshells
For
Forll==00 mml l==0,
0, sssubshell
subshell
planar node

When l = 1, there is a
For
Forll==11 m
ml l==-1,
-1,0,
0,+1
+1 NODAL PLANE
this isaap
thisis p subshell
subshell
with33 orbitals
with orbitals

See Screen 7.13
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pp Orbitals
Orbitals

• The three p orbitals are oriented 90o apart
in space
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dd Orbitals
Orbitals
When n = 3, what are the values of l?
l = 0, 1, 2
and so there are 3 subshells in the shell.
For l = 0, ml = 0
---> s subshell with single orbital
For l = 1, ml = -1, 0, +1
---> p subshell with 3 orbitals
For l = 2, ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2
---> d subshell with 5 orbitals
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typical d orbital
dd Orbitals
Orbitals planar node

s orbitals have no planar
node (l = 0) and so are
spherical. planar node
p orbitals have l = 1, and
have 1 planar node,
and so are “dumbbell”
shaped.
This means d orbitals (with l
= 2) have
2 planar nodes
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3dxy Orbital
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Arrangement of
Electrons in Atoms
Electrons in atoms are arranged as

SHELLS (n)

SUBSHELLS (l)

ORBITALS (ml)
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Arrangement of
Electrons in Atoms
Each orbital can be assigned no
more than 2 electrons!
This is tied to the existence of a 4th
quantum number, the electron
spin quantum number, ms.
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Electron
Spin
Quantum
Number,
ms

Can be proved experimentally that electron
has a spin. Two spin directions are given by
ms where ms = +1/2 and -1/2.
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QUANTUM
NUMBERS

nn --->
---> shell
shell 1,
1, 2,
2, 3,
3, 4,
4, ...
...
ll --->
---> subshell
subshell 0,
0, 1,
1, 2,
2, ...
... nn -- 11
m
ml l --->
---> orbital
orbital -l-l ...
... 00 ...
... +l
+l
m
ms s --->
---> electron
electron spin
spin+1/2
+1/2 and
and -1/2
-1/2
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the
same atom can have the
same set of 4 quantum
numbers.
That is, each electron in an
atom has a unique address
of quantum numbers.
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Electrons
Electrons in
in Atoms
Atoms
When n = 1, then l = 0
this shell has a single orbital (1s) to which
2e- can be assigned.
When n = 2, then l = 0, 1
2s orbital 2e-
three 2p orbitals 6e-
TOTAL = 8e-
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Assigning Electrons to Subshells
• In H atom all subshells of
same n have same
energy.
• In many-electron atom:
a) subshells increase in
energy as value of (n + l)
increases.
b) for subshells of same
(n + l), the subshell with
lower n is lower in
energy.
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Electron
Filling
Order
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Writing
Writing Atomic
Atomic Electron
Electron
Configurations
Configurations
Two
Two ways
ways ofof
writing
writing configs.
configs.
One
One is
is called
called spdf notation
the spdf
the spdf for H, atomic number = 1
notation.
notation. no. of
1
1s electrons

value of l
value of n
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Writing
Writing Atomic
Atomic Electron
Electron
Configurations
Configurations
Two
Two ways
ways ofof
writing
writing ORBITAL BOX NOTATION
configs. for He, atomic number = 2
configs. Other
Other
is
is called
called the
the Arrows
orbital
2 depict
orbital box
box 1s electron
notation.
notation. spin
1s

One electron has n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = + 1/2
Other electron has n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = - 1/2