You are on page 1of 29

MATTER

Matter
 it is any substance which has mass
and occupies space.
STATES OF MATTER
 Matter can exist in 4 phases:

Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma.
SOLID STATE
 Particles of solids are held in place by
strong electrostatic forces and are
densely packed together.

 Particles of solids vibrate constantly
due to their internal energy but they
cannot move from one place to
another.
LIQUID STATE
 Particles of liquids are kept together
by forces of attraction that are
weaker than those of solid particles.

 Within the walls of the container
they can move from place to place
bumping into the sides of the
container and into other particles.
GAS STATE
 Particles of gases are "more rarefied" than
either liquids or solids. This means that the
forces of attraction that hold them together
are very weak and that the spaces between
them are much larger than the spaces
between solid and liquid particles.

 Particles of gases can move from place to
place within a container bumping against the
walls of the container and against other
particles.
Physical Properties of Each State
SOLID LIQUID GAS
PROPERTY
Shape fixed same as same as
contain container
(indefinite) (indefinite
)
Volume definite definite fills entire
container
(indefinite
)
Ability to flow no yes yes
Can be compressed very slightly very slightly yes

Volume change with heating very small small large
Describing Matter
 Intensive Properties: properties that do
not depend on the amount of matter.
Some examples are: colour, odour,
density, melting point

 Extensive Properties: properties that do
depend on the amount of matter.
Some examples are: mass and volume
How to Describe Matter
(Qualitative & Quantitative Observations)

1. Physical State: solid, liquid, gas.
2. Colour: green, blue, yellow, black, reddish-brown, etc.
3. Odour: odourless, flowery, spicy, nauseating, etc.
4. Clarity: clear, cloudy, opaque.
5. Luster: shiny, dull.
6. Form: regular (crystalline), irregular (amorphous)
7. Texture: how does it feel? fine, coarse, smooth, waxy, etc.
8. Hardness: can it be scratched easily? scale from 1-10
(e.g. talcum powder-1, diamond-10)
9. Brittleness: can it break apart or shatter easily? brittle or flexible
10. Malleability: can it be bent and folded into different
shapes? malleable or non-malleable
11. Ductility: can it be stretched out into a long wire? ductile or
non-ductile
12. Viscosity: can the substance flow? viscous or non-viscous
Chemical Properties:
 Properties of a substance that we
observe when it reacts or does not react
with other substances
 iron rusts in moist air, gold does not
 hydrogen burns in oxygen, but nitrogen
does not
 zinc reacts with acid, but glass does not
Physical & Chemical Changes
Physical Change
 No new substance is produced

 Substance remains the same even

with a change of state
 May require addition of energy

 Release of energy may occur
PROPERTIES
 Outside may look different

 Inside remains the same

 Particles may be rearranged

 Forces of attraction between particles

may be weaker or stronger
 EXAMPLES:
 Mixing sugar and water
 Ice melts into water
 Solid wax ==> Liquid wax
Chemical Change
 Final substance is substantially
different than initial substance
 New substance is always produced
 Energy is usually released but may
be required to get the change going
PROPERTIES:
 A new substance is produced

 The particles of the new substance

do not resemble those of the old
substance
 Internally, the substance produced is

different than the old substances
EXAMPLES:
 Vinegar and baking soda mix to form

carbon dioxide
 Hydrochloric acid reacts with

magnesium metal to form hydrogen
gas
CHANGES OF STATES OF
MATTER
MIXTURE
A combination of two or more
substances that are not chemically
united and do not exist in fixed
proportions to each other. Most
natural substances are mixtures.
MIXTURE VS. PURE
COMPOUNDS
 A mixture can be physically
separated into pure compounds or
elements.

 A pure compound has a constant
composition with fixed ratios of
elements.
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
 The prefixes "homo"- indicate
sameness
 A homogeneous mixture has the
same uniform appearance and
composition throughout. Many
homogeneous mixtures are
commonly referred to as solutions.
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
 The prefixes: "hetero"- indicate
difference.A homogeneous mixture has
the same uniform appearance and
composition throughout.

 Many homogeneous mixtures are
commonly referred to as solutions. A
heterogeneous mixture consists of
visibly different substances or phases.
SOLUTIONS
 SOLUTIONS are homogeneous mixtures.
 A solution is a mixture of two or more
substances in a single phase. At least two
substances must be mixed in order to have
a solution.
 The substance in the smallest amount and
the one that dissolves or disperses is called
the SOLUTE. The substance in the larger
amount is called the SOLVENT. In most
common instances water is the solvent.
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTIONS
 Lemonade, carbonated water,
vinegar, rubbing alcohol, food
coloring, etc.
COLLOIDS
 A colloid is a homogeneous solution
with intermediate particle size
between a solution and a suspension.

 Colloid particles may be seen in a
beam of light such as dust in air in a
"shaft" of sunlight. Milk, fog, and
jello are examples of colloids.
Examples of colloids
 These are just a few of the many examples of colloids, both man-made and naturally
occuring.
 Aerosols:

• Man-made: Aerosol sprays, insecticide spray, smog. Natural: Fog, clouds.
 Solid aerosol:
• Natural: Smoke, dust.
 Foam:
• Man-made: Shaving lather, whipped cream.

 Emulsions:
• Man-made: Mayonnaise, cosmetic lotion, lubricants. Natural: Milk.
 Sols:
• Man-made: Paint, ink, detergents, rubber (a latex - also occur naturally).

 Solid foams:
• Man-made: Marshmallow, styrofoam, insulation, cushioning.
 Gels:
• Man-made: Butter, jelly.
 Solid sols:
• Man-made: Certain alloys. Natural: Pearl, opal.
SUSPENSION
 In contrast a suspension is a
heterogeneous mixture of larger
particles. These particles are visible
and will settle out on standing.
Examples of suspensions
fine sand or silt in water or tomato
juice.