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Learning

BC(SC) 3rd
Semester
Week 5
Scope of This Week
 About Learning
 Definitions

 Types Of Learning
 Principles of Learning
 Factors Facilitating Learning
 Learning is a Process
 An active engagement with experience
 It
is what people do when they want to
make sense of the world
 May involve development & deepening
of:
 Skills
 Knowledge
 Understanding
 Awareness
 Values
 Ideas And Feelings
Learning is most effective when
it happens at both, a belief and
an identity level; so that we
can make sense of something
and can relate it to our own
life experiences
Learning Is…
 An Innate & Lifelong Process
 All humans want to learn & CAN
 Passion, Curiosity & Persistence Helps
 Value what you know & can do

 Occurs All The Time
 You learn more than the curriculum
 Your behavior influences the process
 Exhibit Team Work & a Continuous Effort

 Makes Meaning Of The World
 Develops understanding
 Ideas are open to questioning and refinement
 Patiently give time to build meaning
Learning Is…cont
 A Learners Responsibility
 Individual Differences Matter
 We only Remember What Is Relevant & Significant
 Learners can self-assess and develop capacity to
monitor own learning

 Connection Of The Old With The New Lessons
 Discover what YOU already know
 Challenge Your Suppositions And Preconceptions

 Influenced By Social Relationships
 Develop positive relationships
 A purposeful teacher/learner & learner/learner
interaction helps learning further
Learning Is…cont
 Significantly Affected By Emotions
 Safe, Positive & Secure environment Helps
 Acknowledge emotions and emotional contexts

 Self-concept Affects Motivation & Learning
 Communicate positive expectations
 Show confidence in YOUR abilities
 Acknowledge and celebrate success

 Embedded In Purposeful & Meaningful
Experiences
 Be Involved in the goal setting process
 Connect what is being taught to hypothetical and real-
life experiences
Learning Is…cont
PartlyIs Understanding Of
The Context
 Be aware of how your behavior
influences the context for learning

Complex And Non-linear
 Recognize the educational potential
in Risk-taking, Mistakes Or Errors
 Show Perseverance
“Learning is a relatively permanent
change in organism’s behavior due to
experience”
David G. Myers

“ Learning is a process of having
one’s behavior modified more or
less permanently”
N.L Munn
Types of Learning

1. Learning By Insight Or
Intelligence

2. Learning By Trial & Error

3. Learning By Conditioning

4. Learning By Imitation
1. Learning by Insight or Intelligence

 Intellectual Aspects Generate Process
Of Learning

 ItAlso Involves Re-organization Of
The Perceptual Field

 Promotes Goal-directed Behavior

 UseOf Intelligence To Cope With
Novel & Difficult Situations
2. Learning By Trial And Error

 Based On Trying, Failing, Varying
The Procedure And Ultimately
Attaining Success
 Its
Like Finding The Appropriate
Key Out Of The Bunch In The Dark
 Evident In Children
 Applicable In Learning Sports
3. Learning By Association
 Classical Conditioning
 Learning That Certain Events (Stimuli) Occur
Together
 Acquisition: The initial learning phase
 Extinction: Elimination of the conditioned response
 Generalization: one stimulus may bring the same
response to a similar stimulus
 Discrimination: Opposite of generalization; response
to one stimulus but not to another similar stimulus
3. Learning By Association

Operant

LearningBy Associating A
Response And A Consequence
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment
4. Learning by Imitation

• Learning Through Observation

• Observational Learning Or Modeling

• All Social Behaviors Are Learnt By
Imitation And Observation

• Most Common Amongst Children
Principles of Learning
1. Readiness:
 A degree of single-mindedness & eagerness
 Learning best when are physically, mentally &
emotionally ready to learn
2. Practice:
 Things most often repeated are best remembered
 Learning is best and retained longer when there is
meaningful practice and repetition
2. Effect:
 Based on the emotional reaction of a person
 Directly related to motivation
 Learning is strengthened when accompanied by
a pleasant or satisfying feeling
 Learning is weakened when associated with an
unpleasant feeling
Principles of Learning…cont
4. Primacy:
 The initial learning is strong & lasts
 Often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression
 Things learned first create a strong impression in the mind
that is difficult to erase
 Faulty learning is most difficult to unlearn & relearn
4. Recency:
 Acquired last, Remembered best!
 The further removed time-wise from a new fact or
understanding, the more difficult it is to remember
 When learning time is closer to the actual need to application,
the performance is more successful
4. Intensity:
 The more intense the material, the more likely it will be
retained
 A sharp, clear, vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience
teaches more than a routine or boring experience
Factors That Facilitate
Learning
1. Motivation: A goal impels us to learn
2. Practice: Constant repetition re-inforces learning
3. Verbalization: Use of verbal cues make the learning
process more rapid
4. Meaningfulness: Learning is ineffective when the
material is meaningless
5. Use of Mnemonics: A mental technique for memorizing
information. E.g. Richard Of York Gave Battle In
Vain, VIBGYOR (rainbow colors)
6. Freedom from fatigue
7. Reward or reinforcement