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BS(CS) 3rd Semester
Week 7
 Introduction
 Nature and Characteristics
 Biological Basis Of Motivation
 Learned or Acquired Motives
 Achievement Motive
 Enhancing Student Motivation
“Shoot for the moon. Even if you miss, you'll
land among the stars”
 Motive
 An impulse, a desire or need leading to an action
 Motivation
 Directs or leads organism's behavior towards a
specific goal
 Is the driving force behind an action
 Gives purpose and direction to behavior
 It is the ‘WHY’, for all behavior/actions
M Mastering
O Overall
T Temperament
I Intelligently
V Vigorously
A Achieve
T Total
I Impact
O Over-power
N Negativity
Nature and
of Motivation
1. Motivation As Instinctive Behavior
o Instinct:
o An unlearned biological drive
o An innate tendency to achieve something
o e.g. Crying allows a human infant to survive

o It is Inherited
o Species specific & automatic
Nature and
2. Motivation as reduction of drives
or attaining an incentive

o Drive:
o A physiological need
o People act in order to reduce needs and
maintain a constant physiological state
o To reduce drive one eats, drinks, sleeps &
satisfies all such needs
o Incentive:
o A positive or negative environmental stimulus
that motivates behavior
o We sometimes work for some incentives like
money or prize etc
o When there is both a need and an incentive, we
feel strongly driven
The Drive-Reduction
Unsatisfied Tension


Satisfied Reduction
Need of Tension
Intrinsic & Extrinsic
o Self generated factors
o Responsibility
o Freedom to act
o Use of skills and abilities
o Interesting and challenging work
opportunities for advancement etc
o The desire to learn something
o Has a deeper and long-term effect

o External factors that motivate people
o Rewards
o Promotion
o Punishment
o Getting an ‘A’ grade in the course
o Has an immediate and powerful effect
o Won’t necessarily last long
Motivation As Fulfillment Of
Hierarchy Of Needs

o Abraham Maslow suggested that people
are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
o If a lower need is satisfied, the next higher
one becomes dominant
o Higher-order needs require greatest
o Different people may have different
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives



Love & Belonging


Physiological Needs
Biological Basis Of
o Also known as Unlearned Motives
o Arise as a result of biological changes in the body;
* Air
* Hunger
* Thirst
* Maintaining body Temperature
* Reducing Pain
* Bowel and bladder etc
Learned or Acquired
o Also known as psychological motives
o Occurs when process of socialization takes
o They are vital for survival in society
o These motives include:
* Affiliation
* Achievement
* Prestige & Status
* Self esteem
* Self actualization
It is an Innate Impulse:
o To master challenges
o Reach a high standard of excellence
o To desire for Significant Accomplishments
o To master a skill

Factors that influence achievement
motivation are:
1. Personality Factors
2. Situational Factors
1. Personality Factors

High-achievement Motivation tends to
lead to particular personality features:

o Persistence
o Ability To Delay Gratification
o Competitiveness
 Persistence
o High achievers tend to be very persistent
o Work hard to attain goals they set for themselves

 Ability To Delay Gratification
o A greater ability to delay gratifying impulses
o Short term pains to reach long-term goals

 Competitiveness
o select careers that give the opportunities to
compete with other people
2. Situational Factors

o Situational factors affect
‘Achievement Motivation’; include:
o Expectation of Success
o Incentives
o Control
o Opportunity
Situational Factors…cont
 Expectation of Success:
o Having good role models
o Getting constructive feedback and
o Creates expectation and motivation
 Incentives:
o reward people for their competence
o motivate them to achieve
Situational Factors…cont
 Control:
o More motivation to achieve if one feels, has
more control
o At least over some aspects of their work/lives
 Opportunity:
o When they have the opportunity to achieve
o When they use circumstances to create
The Power of Goal
Goals Increase Motivation to achieve if they are:
 Specific

The more specific the goals, the more effective they
are as motivators
 Challenging But Achievable

Goals have to be difficult enough to be challenging
but easy enough to be reachable
 Positive

It is better for people to frame goals in terms of positivity
Student Motivation
Student Motivation is:
o The student’s desire to participate in
the learning process
o The reasons or goals that underlie
their involvement or noninvolvement
in academic activities
o Can either be ‘Intrinsically’ or
‘Extrinsically’ motivated
Enhancing Student
φ Find a true interest in what you are doing
φ Set goals: Use both short and long term goals to
guide the action process and create an overall
φ Start with a small step
φ Having faith in your abilities
φ Encourage yourself and others for excellence
φ Deadlines: Many people are most productive
right before a big deadline
Enhancing Student
φ Find positive people to be around: positive people
inspire you to stay motivated
φ Create a vision for you goals: picture yourself
reaching the goal
φ A person lacks motivation when goals are in distant
φ Throw Out Negative Thoughts From Your Mind
φ Infuse positive energy by Trust & Positive Thoughts
φ Make it fun: work is most enjoyable when it doesn’t feel
like work at all
φ Develop Passion for Work & Work Hard